The hadith was narrated in Musnad Ahmad:
In the first Musnad of the Basri narrators -see here in Arabic-:
In the following I'll translate from Arabic, as these translations are of my own take them with the necessary care! My additions are added in italic
19776 حدثنا محمد بن جعفر حدثنا شعبة عن قتادة عن نصر بن عاصم عن رجل منهم أنه أتى النبي صلى ...
It is found in e.g. Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal: here and here, the text of the narrations there is:
حدثنا وكيع، حدثنا شعبة، عن قتادة، عن نصر بن عاصم الليثي، عن رجل منهم، أنه أتى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأسلم على أن يصلي صلاتين فقبل منه
حدثنا محمد بن جعفر، حدثنا شعبة، عن قتادة، عن نصر بن عاصم، عن رجل منهم، أنه أتى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأسلم على ...
There are different wordings:
"Allahumma inni a'udhu bika min 'ilmin la yanfa'u, wa qalbin la yakhsha'u, wa du'a'in la yasma'u, wa nafsin la tashba'u.
(O Allah, I seek refuge with You from
knowledge that is of no benefit,
a heart that is not humble,
a supplication that is not heard
and a soul that is not satisfied.)"
Then he would say: '...
Althought you've already received a more-than-exhaustive answer, I'd like to add that it is authentic for current circumstances amongst Muslims in terms of Aqeedah as well. You can clearly see many arguments amongst Muslim groups who hate one another.
I found the hadith on this website.
And found fatwas saying that this hadith doesn't exist in any hadith compilation.
It is rather mentioned as a quote of Ka'ab al-Ahbaar which he found in the Torah according to ibn 'Arabi ابن عربي in his al-Futuhaat al-Makiyyah الفتوحات المكية and in al-Mustatraf min Kulli fannin Mustadhraf المستطرف في كل فن مستظرف of al-...
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The du'a you mentioned is referred to as a du'a made by 'Ali ibn Abi Taleb () in Shi'a sources such as Tib al-A'immah طب الأئمة of ibn Sabur az-Zayyat ابن سابور الزيات (p.102 see here in Arabic) and Bihar al-Anwar بحار الأنوار of al-'Alamah al-Majlisi العلامة المجلسي (Juz' 92 page 78 see here in Arabic) as a remedy against a whole bunch of diseases such as ...
This is likely to be a Du'a, but I can't recall one from what you have stated; however, I find some words from your quote that fit a specific Du'a and another that fit another Du'a.
The First Possible Du'a:
Ayesha (R.A.) stated that when anyone among them had an illness, Prophet Mohammad (SAW.) used to rub the area of the pain reciting the following dua: