It is not Riba because the additional payment was not agreed upon beforehand nor demanded by the borrower nor a condition for the loan nor a recomponse for the loan. Rather it was a voluntary gift by the borrower. Doing this is permissible.
استقرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم سنا فأعطى سنا فوقه وقال خياركم محاسنكم قضاء
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) borrowed a ...
Here are some for the morning and evening. There are also sites like Islamqa where you can ...
Amanah is to testify that the lord and creator is Allah, in a form of trust:
We did indeed offer the Trust to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook it;- He was indeed unjust and foolish;
Allah also said:
And I created not the Jinn and mankind except that they should worship ...
And [mention] when your Lord took from the children of Adam - from
their loins - their descendants and made them testify of themselves,
[saying to them], "Am I not your Lord?" They said, "Yes, we have
testified." [This] - lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection,
"Indeed, we were of this unaware.
~ Quran 7-172
This was reported on the authority of 'Abdullah ibn Wahb one of imam Malik's most knowledgeable students from Egypt -see here in the Book "Al-Kifaya fi 'ilm ar-Riwaya الكفاية في علم الرواية"-:
أَخْبَرَنَا حَمْزَةُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ طَاهِرٍ، ثنا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ بَكْرٍ، ثنا أَبُو الْعَبَّاسِ تَمِيمُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ تَمِيمٍ التَّمِيمِيُّ ...
There is a hadith with such a meaning:
يجيء الناكح يده يوم القيامة ويده حبلى
The one who masturbates with his hand will come on the Day of Judgement and his hand shall be pregnant
— Shu'ab al-Eemaan
It is weak.
It's always difficult to say that a certain hadith does not exist but it is quite certain that there is no sahih or Hasan hadith like that because the teaching that masturbation is haram is only based on the interpretation of Al-Muminun [23:5-7] 
The qur'an mentions both atheism الإلحاد and the corresponding verb ألحد, يلحد (however more in the meaning of reject and refute) in several verses. Note that the modern day/use terminology is not necessarily a 100% match for the meaning of both Arabic terms.
Atheism mentioned in the qur'an
Some of the verses mentioning atheism are (with some comments):
According to Sunni and Shia (?) teachings, hadith is not directly protected by Allah. There's a lot of evidence that many ahadith have been fabricated out of the temptation to establish a rule on ones own or just because someone told alike, and a human system to evaluate whether the hadith is probably authentic had to be established.
We received the Quran ...
No. Jizyah is only due from adult, sane, free, males from the disbelievers.
The basic evidence for this is the verse:
قاتلوا ... حتى يعطوا الجزية
Fight ... until they give the jizyah
— Quran 9:29
Jizyah is an escape from fighting and execution, while it is forbidden to fight or kill women in the first place, so they don't require the protection of Jizya.
It is being mentioned in the Al-Quran.
Surah Al-Jathiyah, verse 24. (45.24): Reference and link here
Translation: And they say: "There is no life other than our life in this world. We die and we live (alternately); and nothing destroys us except the passage of time". In fact they have no knowledge of it; they are mere conjecture.
Surah al-An’am, ...
Authenticity of the hadith
First of all there are at least three main variations of the hadith itself:
The one of imam at-Tirmidhi in his Jami':
“Whoever says in the morning: ‘O Allah we have reached morning, calling You to witness, and calling the carriers of Your Throne to witness, and Your angels, and all of Your creation, that You are Allah, none has ...
The Sunnis believe the Quran is the speech and words of God, and it is uncreated. Their basis for believing it is that multiple verses refer to the Quran (and other holy books) as that.
Do you covet [the hope, O believers], that they would believe for you while a party of them used to hear the words of Allah and then distort the Torah after they had ...
In this hadith, the Prophet (SAW) emphasizes the importance of cleanliness and protecting oneself from urine.
He mentions that the past nations, specifically Bani Israil, had much stricter rules. If a bit of urine fell on their clothes, they would need to cut that part of it and throw it away.
We have it much easier in the terms that we can just clean the ...
جواري is the plural of جارية and can mean a young woman or a female slave.
In this hadith it is possible that it means 'concubines', who are female slaves with whom sexual relations are lawful, see Did the Prophet (SAW) have a sex slave?.
However it is also possible that 'wives' is meant here, as the word can be used for them and there is a version that ...
You need to know that all those statements which are written in the Quran all those statements are not statements of prophets. As per history, those statements were collected from many religions where prophets travelled. There were some companions of Muhammad who did not see or reach God, so that means they were not able to understand the complete teaching ...
وَأَخْبَرَنِي أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ نَبِيٌّ إِلا عَاشَ نِصْفَ عُمَرَ الَّذِي كَانَ قَبْلَهُ، وَأَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَنِي أَنَّ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ عَاشَ عِشْرِينَ وَمِئةَ سَنَةٍ وَلا أُرَانِي ذَاهِبًا عَلَى رَأْسِ السِّتِّينَ
“And I have been told that there is no Prophet after other Prophet but he lives a life half then the one who lived ...
The hadith is not reliable by its content, considering that Muhammad (p.b.u.h) lived about 600 years after Jesus (p.b.u.h). His apparent death was before he turned 40. It is expected that he returns one day. It has been said that he would come back on Earth and die. This is deduced from a hadith saying that he would be buried at the side of Muhammad (p.b.u....
This looks like a variation on the well known hadith where Umar ibn al-Khattab brought a page from the Torah or something from the writings of the Jews, and the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ disapproved of it, telling us to not take anything from the ahl al-kitab, as we could mistakenly deny something which is true or affirm something which is false. And finally he ...
Just an addition:
In the verse that you quoted, the word "بديع (Badi'u)" is used. The word is translated as "Originator".
The word also means "To create existence from non-existence". See Lane's Lexicon.
I think that's why the verse is used as an evidence to show that Allah created the Universe from nothing.
And Allah knows ...
This narration appears in a chapter of Musannaf (abu Bakr) ibn abi Shaybah in which he quoted those people of knowledge (sahabah and tabi'yn etc.) who used not to raise their hands after the takbirat al-Ihraam (the takbir to start the prayer).
The chapter quotes:
The prophet () according a report on the authority of al-Bara' ibn 'Azib and 'Abdullah ibn Mas'...
It is an authentic narration.
Imām Abū Jaáfar al-Ţaĥāwī comments on this:
“This is Úmar, may Allāh be pleased with him, he would not raise his hands except in the first takbīr in this ĥadīth, and it is a şaĥīĥ ĥadīth.”
[Sharĥ Ma'áānī al-Āthār, 1/227]
Mullā Álī al-Qārī writes regarding it:
“Ţaĥāwī and then Bayhaqī narrated from the ĥadīth of Ĥasan ibn Áyyāsh,...
is this the hadith
"عن كعب الأحبار قال: لما أراد الله تعالى أن يخلق محمداً صلى الله عليه وسلم أمر جبريل عليه السلام أن يأتيه فأتاه بالقبضة البيضاء التي هي موضع قبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فعجنت بماء التَّسْنيم، ثم غمست في أنهار الجنة، وطيف بها في السموات والأرض، فعرفت الملائكة محمداً وفَضْله قبل أن تعرف آدم، ثم كان نور محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم يُرى ...