4

Take the account of the slander of Aisha (r.a.) from her own mouth, for example: it is not hadith.

  1. Do such narrations (narrations from sahaba and the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him)) have a specific name? Narrations that are not necessarily word the Prophet Muhammad, but their own accounts.

  2. Are there sahih books where such collections are collected?

  • I'm a bit confused, which account of 'Aisha are you referring to? Note that hadith colelctions include ahadith with full chains (end with a saying or a doing of the Prophet), others which are attributed to the prophet (last person in the chain might be a sahabi or a tabi'i whom said that the prophet said such and such without quoting the sahabi whom told him so) and sayings of the sahaba and fatwas or comments of sahaba, tabi'in and scholars. So no there are no separate books for that. – Medi1Saif Jan 27 '18 at 15:55
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    You are referring to either athar or hadith mawquf. There is no collection of such in one or more books, but it is always possible to find references to them in books of hadiths collection. – III-AK-III Jan 27 '18 at 16:58
  • @Medi1Saif I am referring to the case when Aisha (r.a.) was accused of adultary. The story from her mouth is not a hadith. Is there term for such narrations? – blackened Jan 27 '18 at 17:37
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    This seems relevant islam.stackexchange.com/questions/36568/… – Medi1Saif Jan 28 '18 at 12:38
5

The terminology used differs by region.

The majority of scholars use the term hadith to describe any such narration that either quotes a speech, describes an action, or documents an approval by either the Prophet ﷺ or any of his companions. When it is a hadith attributed to the Prophet ﷺ, it is called marfū' (Arabic: مرفوع). When it is a hadith attributed to a companion, it is called mawqūf (Arabic: موقوف). Either type can be graded in terms of its authenticity as sahih, hassan, da'īf, mawdū', etc. This is based on the definitions provided by An-Nawawi in his book At-Taqrīb wa at-Taysīr, pp. 32 and pp. 33 (Arabic only).

As for the terms used by other scholars, mainly from Khorasan, they use khabar to mean hadith marfū' and athar to mean hadith mawqūf (note that khabar is more general than just hadith marfū'). This is documented by As-Suyūti in his book Tadrīb ar-Rāwi, Vol. 1, pp. 29 (Arabic only), where he also confirmed the definitions used by the majority of the scholars as defined by An-Nawawi.

It is worth noting that the above definitions are the same ones used by Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, and most other muhaddithīn (scholars of hadith). One of the best books that define hadith terminology is Fat'h al-Mughīth by Al-Sakhawi. In it, he defined the terms marfū' and mawqūf (Arabic only) to the same effect as above.

The books are the same books of hadith commonly used, including but not limited to the six major books.

3

They are generally called Athar [أثر].

  • Hadith: this term is used for any report of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) like his saying, action, tacit approval, manners, physical attributes etc.
  • Athar: this term is used for what is narrated from the Companions/sahabas(ra) and their followers and this narration does not have any mention of the Prophet (pbuh).

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