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Mansur Al-Hallaj was a teacher of Sufism, and wrote a lot of poetry and was accused of heresy in accordance to Islamic law.

My main question is:

Was Masur Al-Hallaj's execution Islamically justified?

My issues to the matter are:

He was a writer of poetry, poetry is not literal but allegorical. According to my reading of Islamic history, Muhammad (swt) loved poetry. (His conviction of heresy was based on his poetry.)

As well as far as my research goes, Mansur Al-Hallaj never admitted to heresy.

My second question:

The Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadir who believe he was doing the proper thing to Mansur Al-Hallaj for heresy, what is his fate if Masur Al-Hallaj was actually innocent?

Note: Just in case any thinks this question is mostly opinion based, it is not. I am clearly focused on whether Al-Hallaj's execution was Islamically justified based on Sharia law.

  • Was he accused of heresy for writing poetry or he was accused of heresy for the things he said in his poems? Your question seems incomplete. – Seeker Jul 13 '14 at 17:15
  • "His conviction of heresy was based on his poetry." - Should be interpreted as things he said in his poetry. Poetry is allegory and from my view have no hold in law. Poetry is written from the heart, with compassion and love. Not with the objective of heresy. Also thank you for the edit. – Opcode Jul 13 '14 at 17:32
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The thing about him going to India to learn magic is based on the suspicions and accusations of the orthodox scholars and authorities of that time since he was shunned by most of them due to his odd statements like the views of unity and ana al haq (I am The Truth (Haq)). From what I've read about him, it seems he loved to travel to find the Almighty in every one of His creations and ultimately finding Him in himself.

The biggest of these suspicions arose because of the rebellion of the Carmathian people since Hallaj visited those areas. The caliphate suspected him responsible for this rebellion for the security of cali thinking he might instigate another rebellion in other areas of the caliphate as well.

From what I think and understand, those who have not attained the spiritual level of a sufi, a wali more specifically, cannot fully comprehend such matters since The Almighty rewards every one according to how close they are to Him.

His is the Hand in most of actions of His beloved and selected people (wali's).

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The main reason for killing him were political accusations with the green light from Sufism, Sunni & Shia scholars. The Sufism whom Hallaj followed, had excluded him from themselves, and also Sunnis and Shias. He had his own sect and followers.

He was arrested times and released but at last with two of his hand writing the minister of a basic caliphate could prove his heresy. In one of those handwritings, he started the letter with this statement "من الرحمن الرحیم" and in other one, affirmed that who cannot go to Haj, can do it in his house.

After about one century from his death, some Sufism scholars defended his works, and at last he was called the martyr of God way.

As he has many oppositions and fans during history, the judgment about him is not right. But what clear is, that he was not a true man from the viewpoint of Shia Ulamas who were living in those days. The persons like, ابوالحسن علی بن حسین بابویه & حسین بن روح نوبختی

P.S.: For translating Arabic to English, the first phrase has explanation:

At the start of any surah we say "Bism-i-llahe-rahmani-rahim". Which the translation is "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, and the Merciful". Please mention that these two words "The beneficent الرحمن" and "The merciful الرحیم" are two name of Allah. The Hallaj, started his letters to his follower with this statement, "FROM THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL". Which shows he believed in Reincarnate of Allah in his body.(It is said that he brought up this kind of thinking from Indian sects when he was in India for learning magic). As you know he was shouted out the word اناالحق (Ana-l-haq) and as the word Haq is one of Allah's names, He showed up the reincarnation of god in him.

For the persons I named them in Arabic, Their names in English are: Abul Hassan Ali bin Babvey and Hussain bin Rouh No Bakhti. Please mention that Hussain bin Rouh was the deputy of Imam Zamn (A.S) in those days. And he was the most honest and legitimate person.

  • Fatemeh, could please add in a few references to your claim? Especially, the first part where you say, "The main reason for killing him were [political accusations][ 1 ] with the green light from Sufism, sunni & Shia scholars. The Sufism whom Hallaj followed, had excluded him from themselves, and also Sunnis and Shias. He had his own sect and followers." – Opcode Jul 14 '14 at 9:00
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    If you know Persian, The link I brought is OK, and in that link for every statement it brings references from the view point of sufism and sunni and shia. But I couldn't find any online English reference. But I can introduce you some books from western researches about Hallaj. – Fatemeh Jul 14 '14 at 9:35
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His claim of ana al haq (I am The Truth (Haq)) was heresy. No doubt about it. Now how should this person be treated?

In general: if one person is misguiding people then think about it...what is the best way to put this man down?

I think the best way is to bring him to the biggest mosque of the city and invite another scholar of Islam to sit down with him and have an academic discussion using Quran and then trash him—academically and publicly.

After such no one would go to him.

But imagine if he is just killed for misguiding. They will make a god out of him...

So if it he was only saying words then then words are to be answered with words. However if he was a person that was creating social anarchy by telling his followers lets go and attack there and there, steal money, take over than castle then he is to be executed.

Depending on the case the answer is very obvious. My historical knowledge on what he did is limited.

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