The objective of the following is not to answer your question; rather, to show why it is difficult to give a precise answer.
The Islam Q&A Fatwa 256888 stipulates that using money with depictions of rulers is not the users' fault. Someone is obviously at fault, but scholars refrain from point out who for reasons related to what is termed as public interest (al-maslaha, Arabic: المصلحة), which is typically classified into three categories: permitted (mashrū'ah, Arabic: المصالح المشروعة), without ruling (mursalah, Arabic: المصالح المرسله), and prohibited (manhiyyah, Arabic: المصالح المنهيه). The fatwa by the Permanent Committee (or the Standing Committee) is based on this for its justification of "legitimate purposes." However, a very advanced level of knowledge is required to understand such matters and is often debated among top scholars of jurisprudence (see Islam Q&A Fatwa 259348 Arabic only, and Islam Q&A Fatwa 160876 English and Arabic).
On another note
It is worth noting that the other links you provided talk about a completely different topic, which is making depictions rather than using them. There is always a mixing of views when it comes to such matters (this is why the SeekersHub article you quoted said 3D and complete are depictions are prohibited, while 2D or incomplete depictions are disliked, therefore drawings of living things are not prohibited and it is not clear based on what).
Permissibility is based on a number of things that you can think of as a matrix with the top row being: making, possessing, using. Then the conditions in the rows to follow are:
- Dimension: 2D (depiction has no shadow) or 3D (depiction has a shadow or can be deciphered by touching)
- Capture methodology: drawing or photography
- Resemblance to living objects: complete match or disfigured
- Objects: natural (which is divided into humans, animals, plants, mountains, lakes, etc.) or man-made (cars, buildings, etc.)
- Depiction completeness: a whole creature or partial (for instance, missing head or missing body, etc.)
- Purpose: educational (or other "legitimate purposes" — as per the fatwa in Islam Q&A), or recreational
- Audience: age and gender (e.g., dolls for girls are allowed)
- Permanence: lasting (e.g., printed) or temporary (e.g., TV).
Historically, Muslims used coins which had the head of the Roman Emperors on one side and the cross on the other until they mad their own currencies later on. Whose fault is it will require an analysis of all the above criteria in connection with the fact that currency is a maslahah mursalah; there will be no trusted answer given — while pointing out the culprit — in such a forum.