Chapter 17 of the Qur'an is called Al-Isrā', and Banu Isrā'īl. It was commonly referred to as either by the companions. The chapter is talking mainly about Banu Isrā'īl. It starts with exalting Allah by reminding us of three miracles that He did to demonstrate His power:
- The night trip of the Prophet ﷺ from night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al-Aqsa.
- The Scripture [Torah] revealed to Moses for the benefit of Banu Isrā'īl.
- Saving of their ancestors, the believers, during the time of Noah on a ship during the flooding.
Muhammad Metwali al-Sharawi said in his Al-Khawātir, 1st Ed., Cairo: 1997, Vol. 13, pp. 8309-8340 that Allah is reminding Banu Isrā'īl of their past and leading them to the present (at the time of revelation of the verses): Banu Isrā'īl's ancestors were saved during Noah's flood, and Banu Isrā'īl's prophet was given scripture to guide them, and now (at the time of revelation of the verse) Banu Isrā'īl had a prophet that had undergone a miraculous trip from Mecca (his holy place) to al-Masjid al-Aqsa (their holy place).
Allah then reminds Banu Isrā'īl of what is in their Scripture: Banu Isrā'īl would cause corruption twice, but if they repent they would enter al-Masjid al-Aqsa (their temple) as they did the first time (after the death of Moses).
It is worth noting that there is no hadith or athar that explain the connection between these verses in specific. So the opinions expressed are those of the scholars themselves.