I was told that a woman has to wear a long loose dress, long loose pants and a scarf wrapped around her chest at least when at home, but that seems really excessive to be a minimum requirement. Are there any hadiths or anything in the quran that talk about women’s attire at home. And do women have to wear a scarf around their chest when they’re at home?
This issue has several aspects:
1- According to different Islamic religions, the jurisprudential ruling will be different. 2- It will be different in different cultures and ethnicities. For example, in Pakistan, Muslim women only cover their necks from the neck down, and their necks are usually visible in front of non-mahrams. 3- The extent of a woman's covering in the house depends on whether the woman is alone in the house or with her husband or in the house of another person who is her confidant, such as a father or brother, or a stranger in the house.
When a woman is alone at home or with her husband, she has no hijab and is free. When the children are at home, the woman must observe a certain amount of hijab in front of the children. That is, it should cover from the top of the chest to the bottom of the knee. Avoid wearing kitty and sexually arousing clothes so that the cover does not have bad effects on the psyche of the children. If there is a confidant in the house, such as a father or brother, it is better to observe more coverage. That is, do not wear very tight and semi-naked clothes. It is permissible to keep the head, neck, hair and half of the hands open. Even when the non-mahram is at home, the full hijab must be observed.
'At home' is an ambiguous statement and the dressing requirements will vary depending on other factors that are not mentioned in the question.
When praying at home a woman needs to cover everything except her face and hands, even if she is alone. See What is the dressing criteria for women while offering Prayers?
Outside of prayer it depends on who else lives in the house.
If the only person at her home is her husband then she can wear whatever she likes as there is no 'awrah between spouses. See What is the 'awrah between husbands and wives?
If there are only other women (such as the woman's daughters or the husband's sisters etc.) in the house then she must at least cover the area from the navel to the knees see What is the 'awrah' of women with respect to other women?.
If there are any male mahrams (such as a woman's sons) in the house then there are different madhabs on the 'awrah with respect to them, although complete hijab is not required. See What kind of clothes are to be worn around mahrams?
If there are any non-mahrams (such as a woman's brother-in-law) in the house then she must cover everything except her face and hands, and according to one madhab she should cover everything. See Should a woman cover her hands and face according to this hadith?.