Judaism came around about 1800BC From the study of historic paintings, carvings, sculptures etc it seems that humanity only tapped into monotheism recently as the historic art based upon religion showed little to no signs of monotheism. Also before Judaism there were long periods of time where a vast amount of the population would worship idols, numerous Gods or no Gods at all because of little understanding of monotheism. There were long periods of time without monotheism it seems and those living in areas where monotheism was not practised may have been doomed from birth. Even if there were messengers somewhere it seems that they came after long periods of time and only impacted small populations. What came before Judaism? Were there any messengers or prophets who taught monotheism? How long were the periods?
Well, historically, we can't get much information from before 3000 BC. But I can assure you, Prophet Adam, Nuh, Abraham, Yaqub, etc. were all preaching monotheism.
Allah, The Most Just, will not doom a person if he/she was ignorant of the truth. If what you say is true, such will be the case with such nations. Here's my counterargument.
Allah says in Surah Nahl(16:36): We raised a Messenger in every community (to tell them): "Serve Allah and shun the Evil One." Thereafter Allah guided some of them while others were overtaken by error. Go about the earth, then, and observe what was the end of those who rejected the Messengers, calling them liars. [END OF AYAH] Indeed, if history did not record something, it does not mean it didn't happen.
Allah also says in Surah Ghafir(40:78): And We have already sent messengers before you. Among them are those [whose stories] We have related to you, and among them are those [whose stories] We have not related to you. And it was not for any messenger to bring a sign [or verse] except by permission of Allah . So when the command of Allah comes, it will be concluded in truth, and the falsifiers will thereupon lose [all]. [END OF AYAH] I mentioned this Ayah because the number of total Prophets sent is unknown. Yes, you find Hadith about the total Prophets being 124,000 and 315 were messengers, BUT THESE HADITH ARE VERY VERY DA'EEF. So the Ayah in Surah Ghafir is enough to know that there are more Prophets in history than we know.
Remember, Allah will keep his religion alive till the Day of Judgement.