The ayah is speaking to those who deny the Day of Judgement because they don't think they can be created again. Further in the passage, Allah quotes them:
‘What! After we have died and become dust and bones, shall we really be raised up again, along with our forefathers?’
Say, "Yes, and you will be [rendered] contemptible." (37:16-18)
The purpose of ...
أم من خلقنا refers to the other creation that has been mentioned previously in the surah:
The Heavens and the Earth and what they contain. This is also supported by the following ayat:
لخلق السماوات والأرض أكبر من خلق الناس ولكن أكثر الناس لا يعلمون
The creation of the heavens and earth is greater than the creation of mankind, but most of the people ...
Pagans did not believe to neither resurrection nor afterlife. in Surah As Saaffat 16 to 20 (37.16/20) Qur'an have said that attitude of deniers about these two subject above.
Others are literally others. All the creature, cosmos, beings. "Others" point out that magnificence and perfection to make think and to straighten deniers.
According to this fatwa on islamweb #48460 (in Arabic).
Your interpretation of the significant parts is simply wrong:
O Allah! We implore You for help and beg forgiveness of You and believe in You and rely on You and extol You and we are thankful to You and are not ungrateful to You and we alienate and forsake those who disobey You.
اللهم إنا نستعينك ...
The Shia tafseer works can be classified into three or four groups two of them overlapping with the two classes in the question.
Tafseer ar-Riwa'ee, ma'thur, aw an-naqli (تفسیر الروایی، مأثور او النقلی, eng. Exegesis via narration, heritage or transmission) which relies on hadiths by the Prophet (ص) and the Imams of Shia (علیهم السلام).
Tafseer al-ijtihadi ...