Combining Zuhr Asr doesn't mean that you pray 8 rakaat together in one go but it means that we finish 4 rakaat Zuhr first then we start 4 rakaat of Asr.
Muslims also combine the prayers on Hajj.
It is a relaxation given by the islam and prophet p.b.u.h. so why not avail it.
The Shafiis would say the basis is simply the following:
The Prophet (SAW) said: "The child is for (the owner of) the bed and the stone is for the person who commits illegal sexual intercourse." (Sahih Bukhari)
The general rule of Islam is that an adulterer is not given attribution to his child. All the 4 mazhabs and the scholars would agree to ...
Its a paraphrased translation from Arabic to French to English (see preface), and an old one at that (1914), so you probably shouldn't read too much into the choice of words.
The Original arabic text in the Minhaj is:
وإذا قصد نكاحها سن نظره إليها قبل الخطبة وإن لم تأذن وله تكرير نظره
ولا ينظر غير الوجه والكفين
Source: Scan at archive.org, ...
It simply means before asking for her hand or asking her wali for the right to marry her or simply making a marriage proposal.
Which means when a man intends to marry a girl -and before any engagement- he is allowed to take a look at some parts of her body or her shape even without her knowledge.
Summary: The tafsir is consistent with the technical age of puberty, but Shafi'i sources describe prepubescent marriage of a girl as legal when agreed to by her father of paternal grandfather.
The place to look is The Reliance of the Traveller, The Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law 'Umdat al-Salik, by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri (translated by Nuh Ha Mim ...
Ruling on prisoners:
Regarding prisoners, the stance of the majority including the four madhabs is that caliph has the right to do with prisoners according to what suits the interest of the Muslims and he has the right between effecting on them execution, enslavement, ransom or release. Just as your citation states:
The majority of the jurists maintained ...
I have not come across any reference that has the quote you provided in your question by Imam Al-Shafi'i. Nonetheless, Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, a major figure in the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence, said in Al-Fatawa Al-Fiqhiyya Al-Kubra, Vol. 3, pp. 34-35:
والسنة في حق الرجل أن يستر جميع بدنه على الوجه المشروع فيه فهو مطلوب بذلك . لأجل الامتثال ثم العمامة ...