The so called rightly guided Caliphs الخلفاء الراشدون
The Rashid caliphs or the rashidun are the so called rightly guided Caliphs الخلفاء الراشدون. This term refers to four caliphs who succeeded the prophet Muhammad (Allahs prayers and blessings be upon him) in leading the Muslim community, who are namely:
- Abu Bakr who outlived Muhammad for two years and had to deal with the rida wars,
- 'Omar ibn al-Khattab عمر ابن الخطاب who ruled for ten years and initiated a first compilation or collection of written Qur'an copies during the time of abu Bakr,
- 'Othman ibn 'Affan عثمان بن عفان who is mostly known for his effort in compilation of the Qur'an and sending standard copies to the major cities of Islam and
- 'Ali ibn abi Talib علي ابن أبي طالب who faced the first fitna.