A state of purity in this context refers to the time when a women is free from menstruation.
The hadith mentions that all these three men were with this woman during the same month of purity. The reason this caused an argument is because menstruation is a sign that someone is not pregnant with any child.
If they had been with the woman in different states of ...
No, of course it is not Maria (RA). She gave birth to the Prophet's son Ibrahim. It is unthinkable to accuse her of adultery.
The hadith mentions that a slave-girl committed adultery, and obviously, the child she had was the child of that adultery, not of the Prophet. The Prophet (SAW) did not only have one slave girl.
No one is a judge on the Day of Judgement except Allah Himself:
There is no one in the heavens and earth but that he comes to the Most Merciful as a servant. (19:93)
Then they His servants are returned to Allah, their true Lord. Unquestionably, His is the judgement, and He is the swiftest of accountants. (6:62)
But Allah will judge between them on the Day ...
The whole qur'an is addressing Muhammad () and through him his ummah.
If the qur'an speaks about 'Isa () it is rather in a historical context or for the purpose of teaching Muhammad () and his ummah and reminding them.
Muhammad, peace be upon him, was the last messenger and the last prophet of God to humanity, not just the messenger of God. Over the years, prophets have been sent to guide people to the truth, and some of them had miracles, law, and special religion. Prophet Muhammad is the last messenger of God to bring Islam and the Qur'an. That is, there will be no new ...