Muslims divided into two teams because of this:
The first team
A.k.a Shia are who believe that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) selected Ali ibn Abi Talib as a caliph after him in various situations, the most famous one is Hadith Al-Ghadeer:
O people, Allah the Most Kind the Omniscient has told me that no apostle lives to more than half the age of him who ...
It is obligatory on the Muslims to appoint an Imam over themselves who will administer Allah's Laws: arbitrate disputes, execute hudud and qisas, collect and distribute zakat, organize jihad, lead the hajj and the congregations of eid etc.
Qurtubi in his tafsir writes that there is no dispute among the ummah that it is obligatory to appoint a caliph:
Clearly our allegiance is to Allah alone and Caliphs are just leaders choosen by the community. As they are humans they are bound to make mistakes,so we need not have allegiance to them. But still if someone is doing good (halal) work we must support them even if they are not "Caliphs".
It is Allah alone who knows about the ...
I am going to answer this question without adding anything. I will just use the part of the hadith you have given us which will hopefully answer your question and I got some help from the book Fath ul-Bari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari فتح الباري في صحيح البخاري to make sure I won't say anything wrong.
Umar said in the same hadith:
and there is none among ...
A better ayah to use is probably this:
The believers should not take the disbelievers as allies instead of the believers, and whoever does that Allah will have nothing to do with him, except when you are wary of them out of caution. Allah warns you to beware of [disobeying] Him, and toward Allah is the return. (3:28)
In the case of two equal or semi-...
Indonesia is a Muslim-majority country. There should be no non-Muslims running for a governor position in the first place. Imam An-Nawawi in his Sharh said:
قال القاضي عياض أجمع العلماء على أن الإمامة لا تنعقد لكافر وعلى أنه لو طرأ عليه الكفر انعزل قال وكذا لو ترك إقامة الصلوات والدعاء إليها قال وكذلك عند جمهورهم البدعة
NOTE. My own translation, so ...
Most of the Shi'ite sects including the Twelvers, which form majority of them, cannot resolve with the matter. But there are some minorities like Zaidiya who believe in the uprightness of the three Companions or at least do not curse them. Also there are those who call themselves as 'rational Shia' who seem to compromise with the hostility towards the ...
The Kalifah is chosen by Ahlul Ikhtiar, and the requirements of the Kalifah are the following:
Must be Muslim
Must be Mature
Must be Sane
Must be a freeman and not a slave
Must be knowledgeable
Must be Righteous
Must be a Male/Man
Have prudence in opinion/ Wisdom
Must have firm qualities, like bravery and fairness
Must have a healthy body and ...
As a brief response, in regard to the differences between caliphate and Imamate, I should mention that Imamate is a status from Allah to special men, but Caliphate is a status from assembly to special men.
Largest Shiite speakers have such a definition for Imamah:
Imamah is a public leadership in the world and in religion and life
Allama Helli also brought this:
leader Imamah is a public leadership in religion and life for a
particular person as the representative of the Prophet 2.
Imamah has various aspects such as religious authority, ...
This actually has nothing to do with Shia and Sunni, nor anything with religion. It matters on the context of each word being used.
Caliph means a successor or a heir in Arabic. A Caliphate is something where one succeeds another. It can be in a family, like a son is a caliph of the father, it can be a tribal system or it can be a statehood.
You can be ...
This answer covers the viewpoint of the Ahl al-Sunnah. You should realize that this is a controversial subject with a lot of disagreement and alternative narratives among the sects.
The caliph is nominated by the following means:
By the preceding Imam. For example some hold the belief the Prophet ﷺ left indications regarding whom should succeed him. The ...
Sahih al-Bukhari, Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Adam and Moses argued with each other.
Moses said to Adam. 'You are Adam whose mistake expelled you from
Paradise.' Adam said to him, 'You are Moses whom Allah selected as His
Messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly; yet you blame me
for a thing which had already been ...
The Messenger of Allah [SAW] said: 'I do not want to see you after I am gone reverting to disbelievers, striking the necks of one another (killing one another). No man is punished for the crime of his father, or the crime of his brother.' (Nasa'i)
The meaning is simple. No person can be punished for a crime he did not commit. So, killing princes for the ...
Your question a little seems to be vague. But if I've perceived well, in case that you mean if Raza (permission) of authoritative leader/caliph/Imam required to lead prayers in Islam for a person to be counted as a Imam of Jama’a and as a representative of Shar’, the reply could be yes, and he ought to have the permission of Hakem-al-Shar’ in order to being ...
As Mujahid (مجاهد) has pointed out, there are various lists of qualifications in old sources. All the Sunni law schools agree that the Imam/khalifa must be from the family of the Prophet (ahl al-bayt), in the sense that he must at the very least be from the Quraysh. This invalidates the spurious claim of the Ottomon sultans to be caliphs (to say nothing of ...