Disclaimer. Since this question is three questions in one (1. what is tadlīs and its types, 2. what is the ruling of a hadith with tadlīs, and 3. what is the ruling of a person who practiced tadlīs), the answer below will scratch the surface of each topic. If you need to get more details about a specific topic, please post a separate question.
The short answer is it depends, but generally speaking not authentic.
The definition of a hadith mursal is that the tābi'i (Arabic: التابعى), which is the generation after the companions of the Prophet ﷺ starts a narration with: "The Prophet ﷺ said ... ." It is a type of hadith maqtū' (severed chain of narration), at the companion's level.
It is hadith that is not sahih itself, but has some doubt because of which it is Hassan (like maybe one of the narrators is truthful but is said to have poor memory).
However there exists another Hassan or Sahih hadith with different sanad that says the same. Because of the existence of this other sanad we can be sure of the authenticity of the hadith.
About any hadith collection that has been entitled al-Musnad المسند or al-Mo'jam المعجم meets the desired conditions.
As Musnad means a book arranged in chapters or sections that quote ahadith of the same Sahabi () with no special order.
And a Mo'jam is about the same but the arrangement is in an alphabetical order, but it must not necessary be for the ...
I found an upper bound for the amount of ahad hadiths of both sahihs in a statement of ibn Hajjar al-'Asqalani (in his book called al-Madkhal fi osol al-Hadith المدخل في أصول الحديث) saying it is around 200 hadiths, commenting a "False" statement of al-Hakim:
وقد رد عليه الحافظ حجر بقوله :
... "وأما قوله : إن الغرائب الأفراد ليس في الصحيحين منها شيء ، ...
The word Shadh in Arabic means irregular, abnormal or unnatural.
What you stated is correct. Generally in hadith, Shadh is describing a hadith of a trustworthy person that contradicts the narration of a person who's more reliable.
This is what all scholars agree with. Some have added that it contradicts a narrator who's more reliable and has a better ...
After some further investigation (with input from the comment above), here are my preliminary results.
Muslim Scholars Database
People currently working on computational hadith analysis:
Irene Kirchner, PhD student at Georgetown University
Mairaj Syed, professor at UC Davis
Others not listed that are included from the papers below
You mixed up different people.
The person in the isnad of the hadith of Imam Bukhari is Abdur-Rahman ibn Abi Bakrah Ath-Thaqafi (RA). Abu Bakrah's real name was Nufay ibn Al-Harith, and he was a Sahabi. Hence, his son Abdur-Rahman was a Tabi'i.
The person mentioned in the hadith of the Muwatta is Abdur-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr (RA). Abu Bakr (RA) is the famous ...
The following are among the verses which scholars have used as evidence for accepting Ahad narrations (when they fulfill certain criterion regarding the transmitters and the content):
The verse of Surah at-Tawbah:
وما كان المؤمنون لينفروا كافة فلولا نفر من كل فرقة منهم طائفة ليتفقهوا في الدين ولينذروا قومهم إذا رجعوا إليهم لعلهم يحذرون
And it is not for ...
The Scholars of Hadith differed over the meanings of the classifications of Hadith. However, what is generally meant by Munkar is that 1. the Isnad is weak, for example there may be a break in the Isnad or one of its narrators lost his memory and 2. the meaning of the Matn opposes something more authentic than it which is established.
Mudtarib refers to ...