Muslims divided into two teams because of this:
The first team
A.k.a Shia are who believe that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) selected Ali ibn Abi Talib as a caliph after him in various situations, the most famous one is Hadith Al-Ghadeer:
O people, Allah the Most Kind the Omniscient has told me that no apostle lives to more than half the age of him who ...
It is obligatory on the Muslims to appoint an Imam over themselves who will administer Allah's Laws: arbitrate disputes, execute hudud and qisas, collect and distribute zakat, organize jihad, lead the hajj and the congregations of eid etc.
Qurtubi in his tafsir writes that there is no dispute among the ummah that it is obligatory to appoint a caliph:
In the name of Allah, the most compassionate, the most merciful
According to Shia's viewpoint there must not be anyone except Allah to has the authority to assign the successor of the prophet.
Accordingly I reckon the answer of your question is ‘God’. Thus as you mentioned in your explanation part of the question, the mentioned verse of Holy Quran could ...
The hadith of the pond of Khumm (Arabic: حدیث غدیر خم) has multiple versions, and a multitude of interpretations based on these different versions. The Sunni view is that the hadith is not an indication, implicitly or explicitly, of successorship, regardless of its authenticity. The answer below is solely from a Sunni point of view.
When we look into the personality of both people and what they stand for, we will understand why Hussain ibn Ali was not willing to pay allegiance to Yazid ibn Muawiyah. InshAllah, we will also understand the bigger picture of the tragedy which unfolded in Kerbala after Hussain refused to pay allegiance.
Who is Hussain ibn Ali?
He is the grandson of the ...
Why Imam Hussain (a.s.) did not swear allegiance? (To Yazid)
Seemingly, this is a question which was asked Imam Hussein over and over.
You can see a brief response of this as it has shown in below:
1: Incapability and corruption
2: fear of Islam ruin
3: corruption of governorship
4: high pitched (the name of Allah) and aiding his religion
Only a specific group of relatives of the Prophet are considered to be Ahl-ul-Bayt. When Shias refer to Ahl-ul-Bayt they do not mean all relatives of the Prophet but this specific group.
As authentic Hadith confirm, Ahl-ul-Bayt are the direct family members of the Prophet: Ali ibn Abi Talib, Fatimah bint Muhammad and their two sons Hassan and Hussain ibn ...
The Kalifah is chosen by Ahlul Ikhtiar, and the requirements of the Kalifah are the following:
Must be Muslim
Must be Mature
Must be Sane
Must be a freeman and not a slave
Must be knowledgeable
Must be Righteous
Must be a Male/Man
Have prudence in opinion/ Wisdom
Must have firm qualities, like bravery and fairness
Must have a healthy body and ...
It must be considered that Uthman was not killed by a single person, whom can be sentenced to death by the Islamic ruler. Massive revolution by the Muslims, ultimately, led to death of Uthman. Therefore, Imam Ali (PBHU) could not punish tens of thousands of revolutionary people. A revolution that Uthman himself was not blameless in creating it.
Because he died as an infant or was still-born
There are 2 ideas about when Muhsin died:
He was still born
He died as an infant.
In Shi'a belief, he was the unborn child of Fatimah miscarried after she was crushed behind a door during the events of Umar at Fatimah's house, when Umar and Abu Bakr attacked Fatima and Ali's house in order to ...
Not really, since the primary reason Shi'ites consider Ali the rightful successor to the prophet rather than Abu Bakr, Umar and/or Uthman isn't because of (or at least not exclusively because of) the Ahl-ul-Bayt argument you're trying to defuse, rather it's because of the hadith of Ghadir Khumm:
Of whomsoever I had been Master, Ali here is to be his ...
The madhab of the majority of the Muslims is that they must be united under one caliph and those who oppose a rightful caliph should be fought if necessary to make them submit.
There are various proofs for this: for example the verses 3:103, 8:46 which prohibit division into groups, 49:9 which commands fighting the rebels, ahadith such as the one ...
This answer covers the viewpoint of the Ahl al-Sunnah. You should realize that this is a controversial subject with a lot of disagreement and alternative narratives among the sects.
The caliph is nominated by the following means:
By the preceding Imam. For example some hold the belief the Prophet ﷺ left indications regarding whom should succeed him. The ...
Shia sources say it is complied in reverse order in A'laam ad-Dyn fi sifat al Mu'minyn (page 117) أعلام الدين في صفات المؤمنين by al-Hassan ibn abi al-Hassan ad-Daylami ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻠﻤﻲ as a statement of 'Ali ibn abi Talib (see here) and in al-Majlesi's محمد باقر المجلسي Bihar al-Anwar بحار الأنوار (see here) :
مَنْ وَعَظَ أَخَاهُ سِرًّا ...
In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful
Briefly speaking, De facto, Othman was not murdered by just an individual, that he/she can be able to be punished by Islamic ruler, but there was a great revolution from Muslims that ultimately was led in murdering of him. As a result, Imam Ali (a.s.) couldn’t punish tens thousands of ...
The only verse I know of is this:
"O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those
in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to
Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last
Day. That is the best [way] and best in result." (Quran: 4:59)
As you can see, it does not really mention ...
ALL the personalities that you mentioned to support the claim that it's only God that can elect leaders for the Muslims are Prophets, who are divinely ordained by God to guide mankind. We can't use those verses to then argue that Abubakar, Umar, Usman and Ali and indeed any subsequent caliph/ruler must be specially commissioned by God before they can be ...
As Mujahid (مجاهد) has pointed out, there are various lists of qualifications in old sources. All the Sunni law schools agree that the Imam/khalifa must be from the family of the Prophet (ahl al-bayt), in the sense that he must at the very least be from the Quraysh. This invalidates the spurious claim of the Ottomon sultans to be caliphs (to say nothing of ...