A standalone word of a single letter should have a meaning
As for the examples of letters you've quoted none of them is a standalone word that has a meaning in the Arabic language. And the qur'an commentators gave a couple of explanations on the use of these letters at the beginning of some of the surahs of the qur'an. So the they are clearly a matter of ...
I am a native arabic speaker. No, there is no difference in the pronounciation of them.
you can listen to an automatic voice using the voice icon in google translator:
test it here.
if you use the Arabic diacritics, you will get a good automatic pronociation.
Salaam 👋. Bismillah.
Your salaat is between you and God. God is fully aware of your intentions and basically everything else. God is Al'hakim, the perfect in knowledge. Sounds like you're on the right track already, Al'hamdulilah.
With that technicality aside, ayat 4:43 suggests that it's important to know what you're saying.
Now here's the thing. Your ...
No (not every word like this is feminine) and No (the word Allah is neither feminine nor masculine).
The letter "ت" or "ة" is an indication for female names, but not exclusively
Not all words that end with the letter "ت" or "ة" refer to a feminine word in Arabic, not even if this word is a "noun" for example:
If we call a person genius we say Nabighah to ...
In Arabic, the article "Al-" or as in Arabic ال, indicates that the name which comes right after it is "known" and "definite". Close to "the" in English or "Le/La/Les" in French.
The word Rehman, itself, is an adjective, meaning "Gracious" , "Kind" , "Compassionate". But in Islamic context, Al-rehman (الرحمن) means Allah, as in بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم. Or as ...
From what I understand,"Hajj Mubarak" is said after completing the Hajj as it is a congratulatory message.
I couldn't find any reference but I usually greet my friends going on Hajj by saying:
“تقبل الله (taqabbal Allah)”
It means : May Allah accept it from you.
Also we should ask them to make dua for us during Hajj :-)
It is ذَلِكَ not لَكَ - kasrah not fathah on laam. These are totally unrelated words. ذَلِكَ means "that" - however it is also used to substitute for هَذَا "this". The translations give the correct meaning.
God willing, you will be accepted, but you can memorize Surat Al-Fatihah and translate it into English and understand its meaning and pray it so your prayers are correct. And with time you can memorize small Surats to pray with them.
I ask God to help you to make the prayer
1: It's not Arabic it's Urdu. It says "ساخت لاہور 1778" which can be translated as "Made in Lahore 1778". I know this because I speak Urdu.
2: Islam Stack Exchange is site for questions and answers about Islam not Arabic language, https://linguistics.stackexchange.com would be better place for this type of questions.