Does Quran say anything about beheading, stoning and hand-mutilation?
How effective they are in case of controlling crimes?
Aren't beheading, stoning and hand-amputation themselves crimes? Why not hang?
The quran orders certain punishments for those who sin the quran however does not say anything specifically about stoning or beheding. But it does include cutting the theives hand
“[As for] the thief, the male and the female, amputate their hands in recompense for what they earned [i.e. committed] as a deterrent [punishment] from Allaah. And Allaah is Exalted in Might and Wise.” [Quran 5:38]
the quran also put in the law of "an eye for an eye"
"We ordained therein for them: 'Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal.' But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what God has revealed, they are (no better than) wrong-doers" (Qur'an 5:45).
so if one did behead or kill somone, they may be beheaded as compnsation.
the quran doesent say anything on stoning, only about lashing the adulterers
“The woman or man found guilty of sexual intercourse – lash each one of them with a hundred lashes, and do not be taken by pity for them in the religion of Allah, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. And let a group of the believers witness their punishment”. Quran 24:2
stoning adulters came from hadith not quran stoning is the punishment for married adulters while lashing is for an unmarried adulterer
Narrated Jabir: A man from the tribe of Bani Aslam came to the Prophet while he was in the mosque and said, "I have committed illegal sexual intercourse." The Prophet turned his face to the other side. The man turned towards the side towards which the Prophet had turned his face, and gave four witnesses against himself. On that the Prophet called him and said, "Are you insane?" (He added), "Are you married?" The man said, 'Yes." On that the Prophet ordered him to be stoned to the death in the Musalla (a praying place). When the stones hit him with their sharp edges and he fled, but he was caught at Al-Harra and then killed bukhari 7:63:196
based on the links you provided i would say that they are effective. muslim contries where near the end of the list, while america always being at the top, the country with the least punishment for crime.
The hadd punishment for a thief is to cut off his hand. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And (as for) the male thief and the female thief, cut off (from the wrist joint) their (right) hands as a recompense for that which they committed, a punishment by way of example from Allaah. And Allaah is All Powerful, All Wise” [al-Maa’idah 5:38]
Because cutting off the hand is a serious matter, cutting off the hand of the thief should not be done for just any case of theft. A combination of conditions must be fulfilled before the hand of a thief is cut off. These conditions are as follows:
The thing should have been taken by stealth; if it was not taken by stealth, then (the hand) should not be cut off, such as when property has been seized by force in front of other people, because in this case the owner of the property could have asked for help to stop the thief.
1- The stolen property should be something of worth, because that which is of no worth , has no sanctity, such as musical instruments, wine and pigs.
2- The value of the stolen property should be above a certain limit, which is three Islamic dirhams or a quarter of an Islamic dinar, or their equivalent in other currencies.
3- The stolen property should have been taken from a place where it had been put away, i.e., a place where people usually put their property, such as a cupboard, for example.
4- The theft itself has to be proven, either by the testimony of two qualified witnesses or by the confession of the thief twice.
5- The person from whom the property was stolen has to ask for it back; if he does not, then (the thief’s) hand does not have to be cut off.
If these conditions are fulfilled, then the hand must be cut off.
There is also similar punishments for Hiraabah. Hiraabah means ambushing people and threatening them with weapons and so on, in the deserts or in the cities, killing them, terrorizing them and seizing their property by force and openly. Hiraabah is one of the most serious of major sins, and it is forbidden according to the Qur’aan, the Sunnah and ijmaa’ (scholarly consensus)
The Qur’aan says (interpretation of the meaning):
“The recompense of those who wage war against Allaah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter. Except for those who (having fled away and then) come back (as Muslims) with repentance before they fall into your power; in that case, know that Allaah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [al-Maa’idah 5:33]
Based on the above ayah, different punishment like killing, crucifying or cutting off hands and feet on opposite sides are implemented based on the severity and type of the crime by the ruler of the Islamic state with advice of the jurists. I do not wish into go into details of crime.
Similarly for fornication if the person is not married, the punishment is a hundred lashes :
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“The fornicatress and the fornicator, flog each of them with a hundred stripes. Let not pity withhold you in their case, in a punishment prescribed by Allaah, if you believe in Allaah and the Last Day. And let a party of the believers witness their punishment” [al-Noor 24:2]
If they are married, the hadd punishment is stoning:
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah and Zayd ibn Khaalid al-Juhani (may Allaah be pleased with them both) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “… Go tomorrow, O Unays, to this woman and if she admits (to adultery) then stone her.” He said: I went to her the next day and she admitted it, so the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) ordered that she be stoned.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2575; Muslim, 1698.
Regarding fornication, it has to be proven in the way dictated by sharee’ah, such as a confession of the zaani (fornicator), or the testimony of four men of good character who witnessed the act of fornication.
However, it should be noted that no one should carry out the hadd punishments without the permission of the ruler. If there is no ruler who rules according to sharee’ah then it is not permissible for the ordinary people to carry out the hadd punishments. Whoever does that is sinning, because carrying out the hadd punishments requires examining the matter and requires shar’i knowledge in order to know the conditions of proof.
References: The hadd punishment for theft
These are law of Allah who is the most just and all knowing. And indeed, in following them is our success and safety. Some of these crimes are so abhorrent and they spread mischief in land, affecting society and its people.
Book of Al-Maeda, verse 33 (5:33) -“The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter;”