I believe the meaning is very simple ,it means God gave adam and the whole mankind free access to knowledge of everything ,this is why scientist are able to research and find the unknown in many areas.
This is the closest logical explanation I can think of ,The problem is most Muslims take everything mentioned in the Quran too literally .
I also believe when God made adam display his God given free will of knowledge which the angels do not possess & after he did so , what it means he asked the The angels to prostrate ,I believe is not physically going down on hands and knees to prostrate Adam ,keeping in mind Angels are forms of energy( Light) and do not have physical bodies like us human, same with the jins who are another form of energy (smokeless fire) while the quran tells us The angels obeyed god and prostrated and iblis who is a jin refused realy means , that The angels agreed to serve adam willingly,while Iblis the Jinn refused through envy and is always out to sabotage man .This is why Muslims must never deal with jinns (irrespective if the Jin is a Muslim or not) , best example is the story of Solomon, God permitted the wind to the control of Solman to blow on each direction for a fixed period of a month and else where we read in the Quran that God mentions there are angels who drive the winds which we must understand that the angels served Suliman with the winds,the other example is when Sulaiman wanted to bring Bilqis thrown , and he dismissed the help of the Jinn who offered to bring it before he gets up from his seat ,while one blessed with the knowledge of the book (obviously a highly intelligent and intellectual human being is referred here)brings the thrown before the twinkling of his eyes and later God warns about how The jins defamed and blasphemed sulaiman by spreading lies after his death that he was a sorcerer and God sternly defends his prophet a loyal servant of God. Quran further talks of human beings of the past who have been far more intelligent and skilled than us , and were destroyed due to the transgression, we may never know what intelligence some of our ancestors may have possessed and were destroyed, and as one can see with the advancement of technology and science ,man is becoming more and more arrogant and there is no doubt man will in the end destroy himself and everything he gained through his arrogance and loss of faith.
The story of Adam , the angels ,Iblis , Sulaiman and other references, should be understood as , God not story telling Adam about some names ,instead he is permitting him complete access to knowledge ,and the Angels willing to prostrate is a symbolic gesture of honoring adam of the high position god has given and it really means they will assist him in seeking knowledge and serving God on earth , while iblis will always be whispering to mankind to distract and sabotage and defame him , the The one who was blessed with the Knowledge of the book in sulaiman story shows how much of freedom adam and his progeny is given where knowledge is concerned.