Are sufi schools equally divided amongst the two major branches of Islam - Shia & Sunni, or are they primarily associated with Shia Islam?
Actually the famous Sufi groups and organizations are Sunni not Shia. There is a sensitivity and negative attitude towards them among other Sunni Muslims like some followers of Salafi movement for various reasons that I will not go into in this answer, still Sufi orders have developed mainly among Sunni not Shia.
As far as I know, among mainstream Shia Muslims we don't have similar Sufi organizations and Tarighats. Thoughts similar to Sufi thoughts exist among Shia Muslims. However, it has not turned into similar organizations partly because of the role and the importance of fiqh for Shia. There are famous Shia scholars who practice what is called irfan but all famous ones that I am know of consider only paths within the confines of Islamic Sharia and focuses mostly on how to better perform Sharia. I haven't heard them being referred to as Sufi, the common word to refer to them is Aaref. One of Irfan's main point is the perspective that the laws in Sharia are not goals in themselves but are means to walk towards and get closer to God and obtain light (still there are other Shia scholars who find such thoughts even within the confines of Islamic Sharia problematic).
As far as I understand, in the view of these Shia Aarefs, each person should walk on a path (طریقة) towards God and obtain light (as stated several times in Quran, search for words like walking, path, light, etc., e.g. see verses 1:6, 57:9, 57:12-14, 57:28, 14:1, 6:122) but the best way to walk towards God is following the Sharia (شریعة). In fact, Sharia has a similar meaning to Tarighat: شارع is from root شرع which means street in Arabic.
I think a major point of irfan is to remind one that simply following the appearance of Islamic Sharia is not enough if it does not lead one to obtaining light and walking towards God. If you are performing a part of Islamic Sharia and it is not bringing you closer to God then you are not performing it as it should be performed, e.g. people who think they are praying correctly and according to Sharia but during the prayer their thoughts are not with God but somewhere else, or they performs prayers but also do shameful acts, that means the person is not really upholding prayer, since according to Quran upholding prayer should restrain one from committing sins (see verse 29:45).
Here is an analogy I have heard about their perspective and found useful: if the other paths suggested by Sufi Tarighats are fine and makes one closer to God (which is debatable) Sharia is like a high way compared to them which can take one much faster toward God.
This is to the best of my knowledge, if there is an inaccuracy or problem with the answer I would be happy to hear about it.
Sufism is more of a denominator for a specific approach to Islam. This approach can be found in the teachings of Sunni as well as Shia. Check the site of the Halal Monk for conversations with different spiritual leaders and artists of the Muslim world. Some of them are rooted in the Sufi tradition but sometimes they're Sunni, sometimes they're Shia.
You should remember that your affiliation to one of the four mazhaabs makes you a sunni. But their name is normally known as ahlul sunna wal jama at. If the sufis have any affiliation to one of those mazahibs that means they are sunnis.
It should be noted that Islam gives emphasis to only ibada noting else.
To be a sunni or a shite does not qualify you to get into paradise direct except with iman and ibada.
please brothers and sisters shism and sunnism are all ideologies .the most important thing is ibada.
I myself speaking i am affiliated to maliki ideology but i know shites are also Muslims. Only that they have some wrong ideology.so the difference between us should not cause any trouble .
every one should face himself and do his ibada accordingly.
Is Shiite Sufism or Sunni Sufism correct? Is there such a distinction at all or not? What is the view of Islam about Sufism? As we have said, if we consider Sufism as a sectarian movement that has certain behaviors and customs - which have been an integral part of Sufism in history - then genuine Islam has nothing to do with Sufism. The evidence is that neither in the biography of the divine prophets nor in the tradition of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Ahl al-Bayt (PBUH) there are no such characteristics and etiquettes. They have to be strict about this behavior or this, and even Sufi literature did not exist in our early texts. Of course, some Sufis tried to interpret their concepts and teachings with the words in the Qur'an and Sunnah, but the use of Qur'anic interpretations does not mean that the semantic themes of the Qur'an and hadiths necessarily exist in sectarian Sufism. So, if Sufism is a sect and sects that have behavioral and esoteric customs and behaviors and have claims such as "connection", "annihilation" and "status of a perfect human being", then by submitting to the poles and the old and citing dynasties and circles, The fact is that we do not have anything like this in the verses and hadiths; Rather, in revelatory sources, we have much higher and deeper knowledge that is both effective in awakening the human nature and heart, and also irrigates and enlightens the human intellect and wisdom. Unfortunately, due to their unfamiliarity with the lofty spiritual truths of Islam, some are caught up in the superficial attractions of Sufism and, in an emotional and poetic atmosphere, succumb to the claims of Sufism. Of course, this does not mean that everything that Sufis have said in history is fundamentally false and rejected, but in a general view, the main approach and general trend of Sufism is not compatible with the teachings and culture of Islam. Of course, in my opinion, judging Sufism should be an accurate and scientific judgment, and we should pay attention to what dimension we are talking about; Instead of making a very general judgment about all the identities of Sufism or all sects of Sufism or all the periods that Sufism has gone through, it seems that we should pay close attention to their positions and their thoughts and show which of their principles or doctrinal and practical components It is void.
Nearly all Sufi schools trace their ancestry to Imam Ali a.s., as their genetic father by their masters or as their master in teachings through the holy 12 Imams, most Sufi schools are therefore Shia, but the biggest Sufi school is a Sunni school (Naks-i Bendiyye), but also started as a Shia school of teachings. Therefore they trace their ancestry to Imam Ali a.s., but some claim also ancestry to Ebu Bekir.
Here is a ancestry-line of a worldwide well-known Islamic master: Seyyid Abdülkadir Geylani (k.s.a):
- Hz. Muhammed Mustafa (S.A.V.) (--- through his daughter Fatima a.s. ---)
*2. Hz. Ali (R.A.) [IMAM ALI] *
Hz.Hüseyin (R.A.), Hasan-ı Basri(R.A.)
Zeynel Abidin (R.A.), Habibul Acemi(K.S.A.)
Muhammed Bakır (.R.A.), Şeyh Davud-u Tai(K.S.)
Cafer-i Sadık (R.A.) Maruf-u Kerhi(K.S.)
Sırrı Sakati (KS.)
Ebu Bekir Şibli(K.S.)
Abdulaziz et Temimi(K.S.)
Ebul Ferec Yusuf et Tarsusi(K.S.)
Ebul Hasan Aliyyübnü Muhammed b.el Kureyşli(K.S.)
Ebu Said el Manzumi(K.S.)
Seyyid Abdülkadir-i Geylani(K.S.)
No no brother, Sufism is something that's related with Islam, Shia Sunni Wahabi they are nothing to deal with this. In fact the sufis never relate themselves as being a Sunni or Shia. They love their creator and work for him. They preach the religion, write poems and help people. They have nothing to do with this.
The Shia, are the main decendants of Holy Prophet; Sayyeds. That's why you might be asking this. But no! Sufi schools are not related to any of this system.