According to a fatwa by Ibn al-'Uthaymeen, it is permissible to use the phrase "May Allah's prayers be upon him and his followers" (Arabic: صلى الله عليه وآله) for people other than prophets, long as it is not attached to one specific person all the time as it is done with the prophets. For example, this can be attached to Jabir and Hamza as per your question on some occasions, but not at all times.
We know that the Prophet ﷺ did so based on the command of Allah ﷻ:
خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ صَلَاتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمْ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity by which you purify them and cause them increase, and invoke [Allah's blessings] upon them. Indeed, your invocations are reassurance for them. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.
— At-Tawbah 9:103
The Prophet ﷺ put this in practice supplicated for those who came to him with alms:
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي أَوْفَى، قَالَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ ﷺ إِذَا أَتَاهُ قَوْمٌ بِصَدَقَتِهِمْ قَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى آلِ فُلاَنٍ. فَأَتَاهُ أَبِي بِصَدَقَتِهِ فَقَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى آلِ أَبِي أَوْفَى
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abu Aufa: Whenever a person came to the Prophet ﷺ with his alms, the Prophet ﷺ would say, "O Allah! Send your Blessings upon so and so." My father went to the Prophet ﷺ with his alms and the Prophet ﷺ said, "O Allah! Send your blessings upon the offspring of Abu Aufa."
— Sahih al-Bukhari 1497
This hadith is also in Sahih Muslim, Hadith 1078 a.
In Sahih Muslim bi sharh al-Nawawi (Arabic: شرح النووي على مسلم) by Al-Nawawi (Arabic: يحيي بن شرف أبو زكريا النووي), he commented on this hadith saying that that the majority of scholars say it is encouraged (mustahabb, Arabic: مستحب) to supplicate with blessings for those who pay zakāh, but it is not mandated (wājib, Arabic: واجب), as this was not something observed consistently by the Prophet ﷺ and his companions. Some scholars said it was mandatory based on at-Tawbah 9:103.
Finally, it is known as documented in Sharh al-Nawawi that the use of the phrase "May Allah's prayers be upon him and his followers" (Arabic: صلى الله عليه وآله) for people other than prophets was not liked by 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbās, Malik ibn Anas, and others, but there is no consensus that they prohibited its use.