Please if anyone can elaborate who has made the law of Sahih, Hasan, Daef AND Mawdu Hadees and who has said to follow only Sahih Hadees and leave all the other types of Hadees.
Assalam u alaikum,
In the early times, there were Sahaba, people were good they state facts and truths. There were zero corruption and greed. So at that time there were no terminologies for Sahih, Hassan, da'ef, Mouzo', Mursal and Mawquf etcetera.
After that people started to get rich, they fell in the love of ending planet, they slaved themselves to women and wine. Then story started to change. People started to say ahadiths that don't belong to the holy prophet (peace be upon him) and it was near that all collection of ahadiths would be unbelievable.
Then Muhaddethin came.. these were those who knew the hadiths in depth. They created those rules that no hadith is acceptable without chain. If the chain has right people it will be sahih. if something is wrong that other terminologies will follow.
Hope it helps.
The science of hadith evolved over the first 3-4 generations after the Prophet's death. It can be split into two categories:
- Narration (ruwāya, Arabic: رواية)
- Knowledge (derāya, Arabic: دراية).
The first category is concerned with documenting the hadiths in terms of narrators' chain (sanad, Arabic: سند) and the narrative text (matn, Arabic: متن). The companions of the Prophet ﷺ were keen on listening to the hadiths and memorizing them, seeking the rewards of those who convey the message of Islam:
عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ: نَضَّرَ اللَّهُ امْرَأً سَمِعَ مِنَّا حَدِيثًا فَحَفِظَهُ حَتَّى يُبَلِّغَهُ فَرُبَّ حَامِلِ فِقْهٍ إِلَى مَنْ هُوَ أَفْقَهُ مِنْهُ وَرُبَّ حَامِلِ فِقْهٍ لَيْسَ بِفَقِيهٍ
Narrated Zayd ibn Thabit: I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: May Allah brighten a man who hears a tradition from us, gets it by heart and passes it on to others. Many a bearer of knowledge conveys it to one who is more versed than he is; many a bearer of knowledge is not versed in it.
The documentation of hadiths started during the life of the Prophet ﷺ:
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، قَالَ كُنْتُ أَكْتُبُ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ أَسْمَعُهُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أُرِيدُ حِفْظَهُ فَنَهَتْنِي قُرَيْشٌ وَقَالُوا أَتَكْتُبُ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ تَسْمَعُهُ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بَشَرٌ يَتَكَلَّمُ فِي الْغَضَبِ وَالرِّضَا فَأَمْسَكْتُ عَنِ الْكِتَابِ فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَأَوْمَأَ بِأُصْبُعِهِ إِلَى فِيهِ فَقَالَ: اكْتُبْ فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ مَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ إِلاَّ حَقٌّ
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As: I used to write everything which I heard from the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). I intended (by it) to memorize it. The Quraysh prohibited me saying: Do you write everything that you hear from him while the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) is a human being: he speaks in anger and pleasure? So I stopped writing and mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). He signaled with his finger to his mouth and said: Write, by Him in Whose hand my soul lies, only right comes out of it.
The second category is concerned with validating the level of authenticity, i.e., whether a hadith is authentic (sahīh, Arabic: صحيح), good (hassan, Arabic: حسن), weak (dā'īf, Arabic: ضعيف), etc. In the introduction of his Sahih, Imam Muslim talked about the onset of hadith authentication during the time of tribulations:
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ، مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الصَّبَّاحِ حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ زَكَرِيَّاءَ، عَنْ عَاصِمٍ الأَحْوَلِ، عَنِ ابْنِ سِيرِينَ، قَالَ لَمْ يَكُونُوا يَسْأَلُونَ عَنِ الإِسْنَادِ، فَلَمَّا وَقَعَتِ الْفِتْنَةُ قَالُوا سَمُّوا لَنَا رِجَالَكُمْ فَيُنْظَرُ إِلَى أَهْلِ السُّنَّةِ فَيُؤْخَذُ حَدِيثُهُمْ وَيُنْظَرُ إِلَى أَهْلِ الْبِدَعِ فَلاَ يُؤْخَذُ حَدِيثُهُمْ
Abū Ja'far Muhammad bin us-Sabbāh narrated to us, Ismā'īl bin Zakariyyā' narrated to us, on authority of Āsim il-Ahwal, on authority of Ibn Sīrīn that he said: "They would not ask about the chains of narration, and when the Fitnah occurred, they said: 'Name for us your men.' So Ahl us-Sunnah would be regarded, and their Ḥadīth were then taken, and Ahl ul-Bi'dah would be regarded, and their Ḥadīth were not taken."
There are, however, other views that this second category started even earlier. An example is given in Muwatta Malik, Book 54, Hadith 3 when 'Umar ibn al-Khattāb validated the hadith of Abu Mūsa al-Ash'ari about asking for permission up to three times only. Another example is also in Muwatta Malik, Book 27, Hadith 4 when Abu Bakr checked on the inheritance entitlement of the grandmother from Al-Mughīra ibn Shu'ba and Muhammad ibn Maslamah al-Ansāri.
Later on, the classifiers (musannif, Arabic: مصنف) like Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, etc., compiled and classified hadiths in one or more books, and split their books according to the level of authenticity according to their undocumented conditions (see "What exactly are the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim?"). The authentication was done according to what Al-Baiqūni documented in his Manzūma:
أَوَّلُهَا الصَّحِيحُ وَهْوَ مَا اتَّصَلْ إِسْنَادُهُ وَلَمْ يَشُذَّ أَوْ يُعَلّْ يَرْوِيهِ عَدْلٌ ضَابِطٌ عَنْ مِثْلِهِ مُعْتَمَدٌ فِي ضَبْطِهِ وَنَقْلِهِ
This authenticates a hadith based on three affirmations and two negations:
- Affirm the continuity of the chain of narrators to the Prophet ﷺ.
- Affirm that each person in the chain is trustworthy.
- Affirm that each person in the chain was able to memorize and recall hadiths as heard from the layer before.
- Negate that any person in the chain had a detrimental flaw.
- Negate that any person in the chain had an irregularity (e.g., contradicting what is known to be true through a higher layer).
In Fat'h al-Mugīth bi Sharh Alfiyat al-Hadith (Arabic: فتح المغيث بشرح ألفية الحديث), Shams ad-Dīn Al-Sakhāwi in the introduction talked about the history of documenting and classifying hadiths. The first known book to go to the level of details we have today is Al-Muhaddith al-Fāsil by Ar-Ramahurmuzi about hadith terminology and biographical evaluation. This, although does not have all classifications of hadith as we know them today, laid the foundation for future works. Al-Hākim An-Nisapūri had a number of books on the topic, of which Ma'rifat Anwā' 'Ulūm al-Hadīth is the one most referred to. Abu Nu'aym al-Isfahāni had multiple books on hadith terminology, too, out of which Al-Mustakhraj 'ala Ma'rifat 'Ilm al-Hadith. None of these references are available in English to the best of my knowledge.
It's the biography of all the peoples that listened then tell Al Hadith that what determine whether it is SAHIH, HASAN, DAEF AND MAWDU HADEES
Peoples like AlBukhari (after 200 year of hijraa) make a huge research takes almost all his life , traveling from country to another facing the scholars every where
In that time peoples where telling all the list (chain) of who told them as long as they tell what they listen
like if 'a' told 'b' and 'b' told 'c' and so on until 'z' then 'z' will say I've listened from 'y' that he listened from 'x' and so on until 'a' that 'a' says "..."
and what AlBukhari did almost , that he studied all peoples 'a to z' and studied their biography , if all them were Honest Alhidith would be SAHIH , if some of them used to forget somethings , alHadith may become HASAN and so on
MAWDU HADEES is not something That Prophet Mohammad said .
There was many others like AlBukhari , every one of them make a scale of the honesty of the people and make some restrictions and so on ..
All Sunni scholars agreed that SAHIH al Bukhari is the most faithful book after the Quran.
I hope I've Explained something ..