That Allah guarantees that the world works, that is when you light a fire it burns, that when you drink water it slakes your thirst was fully thought out & explicated by the Ash'arite Theologian Al-Ghazali - he called it Occasionalism.
Allah guarantees the laws of this world, and does not change them. We understand them as the laws of nature. For Allah to make alcohol not intoxicating means firstly that He will have to break that guarantee - and He does not break his own Word; and secondly if alcohol did not make people intoxicated it could no longer, in all truth be considered as alcohol.
The question is why are intoxicants forbidden: Firstly one can make errors of judgement whilst intoxicated; secondly because it can become an addiction and finally because in extreme cases it is a poison.
As you point out during their time in this material world, muslims are warned off drinking alcohol, because there is both good & bad to wine, but the bad is greater than the good - that is it is not intrinsically & wholly bad - as pointed out in Surat Al-Baqarah 2:219 (The Cow):
They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: "In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit." They ask thee how much they are to spend; Say: "What is beyond your needs." Thus doth Allah Make clear to you His Signs.
But after leaving this life - it is not forbidden, but encouraged. But notice the Wine here is mixed with Kafur, or Pure & Holy.
Surat Al-'Insān 76:5 (The Man)
As to the Righteous, they shall drink of a Cup (of Wine) mixed with Kafur,
Surat Al-'Insān 76:21 (The Man)
Upon them will be green Garments of fine silk and heavy brocade, and they will be adorned with Bracelets of silver; and their Lord will give to them to drink of a Wine Pure and Holy.