Firstly, whether he did or did not, does that matter in this context? The question Allah is asking is whether Issa told the people to worship him, and obviously Issa said, (paraphrasing) "No, I did not! How can I say such a thing which I have no right to? You know what is within me, for you are the one who knows what is hidden." Furthermore, in verse 117, Issa is talking about when he was sent as a prophet to the people, or before he was raised up. Issa said that he never said that, and only said what Allah ordered him to say. Then in verse 118, Issa said, (paraphrasing) "If you punish them they are your slaves..." until the end of the verse.
According to Sunnan Abi Dawood:
The Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said: There is no prophet
between me and him, that is, Jesus (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam). He
will descent (to the earth). When you see him, recognise him: a man of
medium height, reddish fair, wearing two light yellow garments,
looking as if drops were falling down from his head though it will not
be wet. He will fight the people for the cause of Islam. He will break
the cross, kill swine, and abolish jizyah. Allah will perish all
religions except Islam. He will destroy the Antichrist and will live
on the earth for forty years and then he will die. The Muslims will
pray over him.