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Asalamoalikum! Brother can you tell me about mu'allaq hadith

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Simply speaking if an author of a hadith compilation, doesn't mention the narrator chain of a hadith or hadith quote (part of a longer hadith) he's quoting and initiates the quote by words like:

The messenger of Allah said:...

then this hadith can be regarded as "Mu'allaq".

The term "المعلق" "al-Mu'allaq" in Arabic literally means "hanging" or "suspended", in other words it means for example if we are referring to a statement then we may call it a commentary of an unknown source.

As a matter of fact such ahadith are very common in Sahih al-Bukhari. In many cases, the author only compiled them in this form to remain brief since he'd be mentioning it elsewhere in his book or in other books with the complete chain of transmission.
If this was the case the hadith properly speaking is no more mu'allaq since its source or chain of transmission is known. And in that case its authenticity can rather be easily qualified.
If on the other hand, the hadith or hadith quote remains without a reference to a source it would rather be rejected. Scholars however would regard the Mu'allaq hadith of the two Sahihs as rather authentic, but as stated these are mostly compiled in other sources.

For example in Sahih al-Bukhari in the book §6 Menstrual Periods you may find him quoting right after the heading:

وَقَوْلِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ هَذَا شَىْءٌ كَتَبَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى بَنَاتِ آدَمَ ‏"‏‏ And the prophet may Allah's prayers and blessings be upon him said: "That is something that Allah, has decreed for the daughters of Adam."

This is a part of a sahih hadith and it was compiled by imam an-Nasa'i in his Sunan, imam Muslim in his Sahih and by imam al-Bukhari himself in his Sahih several times in the same chapter see for example here and in the context of the sacrifice of hajj see for example here just to show some incidents of this hadith quote.

Definitions

More accurate definitions may be found in the fatwa from islamqa #83754 which was linked in @UmH's comment:

A mu’aallaq (lit. suspended) hadeeth is one in which one or more narrators are omitted from the beginning of its isnaad by the muhaddith who compiled the book.

And a definition from ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani in his Nuzhat al-Nazar:

Among the forms of mu’allaq hadeeths are:

  • Where the entire isnaad is omitted, so it says for example: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said…
  • Where the entire isnaad is omitted and only the name of the Sahaabi or the names of the Sahaabi and Taabi’i are left.
  • Where the name of the one who narrated it is omitted and it is attributed to someone who came above him (in the isnaad).

Here's another definition that I'd like to add to those above found in an article in alukah.net:
In the following I'm translating from Arabic, since these translations are of my own with some support of google-translate take them with the necessary care!

الحديث المعلق هو ما حُذِف مِنْ مبدأ إسناده راوٍ فأكثر على التوالي، سواء كان الحذف لجميع السند ثم يقول: قال رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - كذا، أو فعل كذا، وسواء حذف كل الإسناد إلاَّ الصحابي أم إلاَّ الصحابي والتابعي.
A mu'allaq (suspended) hadith is one of which the beginning of its chain of transmission one or more narrators in succession have been deleted (omitted), whether the deletion is for all of the chain of transmission and then he (the author) says: The Messenger of Allah - may Allah's prayers and blessings be upon him - said such-and-such, or did such-and-such, or whether all of the chain of transmission is deleted except for the companion (Sahabi) or except for the companion and the follower (Tabi'y).

This last definition distinguishes Mu'allaq hadith from Marfoo' or Mursal hadith clearly,

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