Is it permitted in Islam to donate organs like eyes or kidneys to someone who needs one? I'm looking for information both about donating while alive (suppose a parent or sibling is in need of it), and pledging to do so after death.
Organ transplantation is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site to another location on the patient's own body, for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or absent organ.
With regard to the donor, the transplantation can be categorized into three types, i.e. :
- Donors(Organ donation) in a state of still alive.
- Donors(Organ donation) is in a coma.
- Donors(Organ donation) in the state of death. It's mean transplanted organs will be taken when the donor has died under the provisions of medical and juridical, durability should also be considered to be taken for organ transplantation
1.Donors(Organ donation) in a state of still alive.
If the transplantation of organs taken from people who are still alive, then the law 'Haram', with reason:
has been described in Surah Al-Baqarah ayah 195 (The Cow)
And spend in the way of Allah and do not throw [yourselves] with your [own] hands into destruction [by refraining]. And do good; indeed, Allah loves the doers of good.
The aayah reminded humans, so do not be reckless and careless in doing something, but still weigh the consequences are likely to be fatal for the donor himself, even though it has the purpose of humanitarian action is good and noble. Eg someone donating a kidney or eyes on others who need it because of family ties, friends or because he hoped the reward of those who require the grounds of economic crisis. In the last issue, ie organ donors in return or sell it, is prohibited, because the human body organ that belongs to God (milk ikhtishash), then it should not memperjualbelikannya. Humans are only entitled to use it, although part of the body of another person. People who donate their organs at the time still a healthy life to others, he will face the risk of impropriety, since it is impossible that God created the eyes or kidneys in pairs if there is no wisdom and benefits for a human being. So when the donor kidneys no longer function, then it is difficult to be helped back. Then as well, eliminating the disease from the recipient by creating new diseases for the donor. It is not allowed because the fiqh Qaeda mentioned:
الضَّرَرُ لاَ يُزَالُ بِالضَّرَرِ دَرْءُ اْلمَفاَسِدِ مُقَدَّمٌ عَلىَ جَلْبِ اْلمَصَالِحِ
"Danger (harm) should not be eliminated with danger (harm)an the other. Avoid damage / risk, take precedence over / above attractive benefit"
Related transplants, someone should give more priority to keep himself from destruction, rather than helping others by sacrificing yourself and be fatal, ultimately he was unable to carry out their duties and obligations, especially in carrying out his duty of worship.
2.Donors(Organ donation) is in a coma.
Transplanting donor organs is in a coma, the ruling remains forbidden, although according to the doctor, that the donor was going to die soon, because it can speed up his death and precedes the will of God, it can be said 'euthanasia' or hasten death. It is not callous / immoral conduct organ transplant or taking in a state of dying. A healthy person should attempt to cure the person who is in a coma, though according to the doctor, that the person who had the coma there is no hope for recovery. Because there are also people who can recover even though it was only a small part, but according to the medical, the patient had no hope for life. Therefore, taking donor organs is in a coma, should not be according to Islam for the following reasons:
Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad, Malik history of 'Umar ibn Yahya, al-Hakim, al-Bayhaqi and al-Daruquthni of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri and Ibn Majah history of Ibn' Abbas and 'Ubadah ibn al-Samit:
لاَ ضَرَرَ وَلاَ ضِرَارَ
"There should not be making madharat to yourself anyway and should not make madharat on someone else".
Based on the above hadith, harvesting organs from people is in a coma / dying haram, because it can make the donor madharat to accelerate resulting in death, which is called euthanasia. A person must try to cure the illness in order to maintain its life, because life and death are in God's hands. Therefore, the humans should not take his own life or hasten the death of another person, even if it was done by a doctor in order to reduce or eliminate the suffering of patients.
3.Donors(Organ donation) in the state of death.
Taking donor organs (heart, eye or kidney) legally dead, and medical, legal or permissible, ie permissible according to Islamic views on condition :
Recipient (the recipient organ donation) in a life-threatening emergency if not done the transplant, while he was in an optimal treatment both medical and non-medical, but to no avail. It is based on Fiqhiyyah Qaeda:
الضَّرَرُ يُزَالُ الضَّرُوْرَاتُ تُبِيْحُ اْلمَحْظُوْرَاتِ
"Emergency will allow the forbidden. The danger must be eliminated"
Also fits with the organ transplant recipient and will not lead to more serious complications of the disease compared to her previous state. Besides, there should be a testament to the heirs of the donor, to donate his organs when he died, or have permission from their heirs.
has been described in Surat Al-Mā'idah ayah 5:32 (The Table Spread)
"Because of that, We decreed upon the Children of Israel that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land - it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one - it is as if he had saved mankind entirely. And our messengers had certainly come to them with clear proofs. Then indeed many of them, [even] after that, throughout the land, were transgressors."
According to the Ulemahs & those who have studied Islam thoroughly they say that its allowed if 3 conditions are fulfilled - 1.) If the condition of the recipient is very seviour & donation of the organ will surely be able to save his life for ex: being blind or damage to the eyes doesn't because death so it isn't permissible , but damage to the kidneys can lead to death so there its permissible 2.) It shouldn't be done for economical reasons , for monetary gains 3.) The organ donation shouldn't do a lot of harm to the donor so that he becomes completely impaired or die
& after death the above two conditions remains the same , except you can also donate eyes after death , but the 3rd condition is that not a lot of harm should be done to the dead corpse or the dead body & one more thing the brain dead or coma situation isn't actually death but your brain isn't functional & there have been over a 1000 cases where a person has recovered from coma , but this time according to the 3rd condition this time organ donation can cause the life of the donor if he's in coma so this time it's completely forbidden