I had apostated a while ago because I was ignorant on matters of islam in terms of actual proof that is comes from Allah, so I searched the internet a lot to find proof, and after a long time I cam across hamza tzortis videos and relearned about something called Isnad, and then saw it as strong proof to believe, so now I want to convert back to islam and become muslim, but there are some problems that prevented me form believing even through these proofs. An ignorant female,meanings not qualified to talk about islam the way she does, said that the quran has errors and contradictions, so I told them a very simple thing which is you cant use a seemingly contradictory verse as evidence against islam if you realize that there is a need to interpret verses, very simple. But she just said "or admit its flawed" and I said fro what, if interpretation is necessary then why immediately call the quran flawed and then insult it due to your opinion, she even admitted herself that 'you don't need a scholar to understand islam, you can form your own opinion" why are you insulting islam based off of opinion instead of a verifiable fact? But my problem is in wondering how scholars interpret verses,do they interpret it apologetically, to make sure that it is interpreted in a way that makes it seem free of error or contradiction, o is there an objective way, to interpret the verses, this is what caused me doubt. The quran shows that verses aren't to be interpreted based off of your desires, meaning that there is an objective way to interpret it, but does that apply to all verses , as the quran says some verses meanings are known only to Allah. For example, the female brought up the food of hell as a contradiction, first it said they only eat foul pus, and then it says they only eat dhari and then only zaqqum. Dhari is part of zaqqum, so does that mean that foul pus comes from dhari? SO the question is this: is the quran cleared of contradictions with biased or unbiased interpretations? Now I understand that there will of course be some apologetic interpreters, but the question I have is is purposefully apologetically interpreting verses common amongst most interpreters? Interpreting apologetically can mean things like making sure it aligns with science as well.
Great Question, Insha'Allah in the permission of Allah the almighty, I shall try to answer your question.
Most of the time they interpret it objectively. The scholars do not make the evidence up in their head.
They use sources such as:
Quran - Sunnah - Narrations from the Sahabah [Not raised to the prophet] - Narrations of the Students of the sahabah - Narrations of the students of the students of the sahabah.
They do not make the answers up in their own head. They mastered the arabic grammar, and can connect verses to the hadiths that we have. The fact that we interpret the Quran does not make it flawed because we use those who have relations to our beloved prophet muhammed (Peace and blessings be upon him and his family). A great example/evidence that the scholars do not make stuff in their minds is to literally read their interpretations. If you can only read english then read Ibn Katheer's interpretations. Though, a verse in which makes it evident for us that the scholars of knowledge do not make stuff up is Surat Al-Baqarah Verse 1, "Alif Lam Meem". The scholars do not know what it means, and why you might ask? Because there is no evidence backing up anything they could state. So, scholars decided that Allah the almighty and all merciful is showing that he is higher above us. No matter how hard you look you will never find the true meaning without their lord the Almighty. This is what they concluded. Of course, there are many theories, but if anyone were to state something about it that has no evidence they will always state that it is a theory unless they are a layman with no knowledge stating it.
Now allow me to state the ways they can gain the interpretation of a verse. Though, before doing so, remember the sources we stated earlier? I'll give you an example on how.
For instance, let us say there is a verse in the Quran which states. "Those who disbelieved and will disbelief Allah blinds in the day of judgement". Now, the sentence is not as beautiful as a single verse in the Holy Quran. Though, lets continue. Now lets also say there is a hadith that reaches the prophet which talks about this.
Narrated Me Narrated Ibn Taymiyyah Narrated Ibn Abbas Narrated ibn AbdulWahab Narrated Al-Razi He said: "I heard the prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him and his family) saying: Allah the almighty knows who will disbelief and who has disbelieved, and when or if they have they will be put a blindfold of lava on them in the day of judgement"
Grading: Saheeh (Its not if you know the scholars I put [May Allah be pleased with them])
So, the scholars would connect this hadith to the verse (which is made up), because it is quite similar to the statement.
What about the words of the Sahabah?
Narrated V Narrated W, he said, X informed me, from Y, He said, "The meaning of the verse (we made up) it is connected to the statement of our beloved prophet Muhammed [Peace and blessings be upon him and his family), that lava will be put on the eyes of those who will disbelief and those who will in the day of judgement".
Grade: Saheeh [Graded by Z]
Now, this is a narration (we made up) from a well known companion of the prophet. We would also connect this in the hadith. Also, another example.
Not a narration:
"According to At-Tabari, the verse is speaking of those who will and have disbelieved in Allah, and they will be put lava on their eyes in the day of judgment [At-Tabari 4/200]"
This is an example of quoting from other books of the scholars of interpretation. One of the well known ones for example At-Tabari and is one of my person favorite. May Allah have mercy on his soul and bless him and be pleased with him.
Of course, they also use their arabic grammar skills to understand the verse, but I cannot explain this to you because it is hard to do so.
Insha'Allah, In the permission of Allah you will either understand the statements I've said and understand how reliable the interpretations are. The scholars do not make stuff up, and alhamdullilah for islam. This is a very powerful way of interpreting the Quran. May Allah guide you, and those around you.