We know, the father can marry off his minor daughter without her permission. Now, after marrying her off, does she have to respond to sex calls from her husband? She hasn't had her first period yet. But can the husband have intercourse with her according to Mawsuwatul Fiqhiyatil Qutiyah (30/122)?


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It depends on whether her body is physically mature enough to have intercourse without physical harm.

Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah Volume 30 Page 122 states the following - english translation is my own and the text in brackets is also my explanation:

ذهب الفقهاء إلى أن من موانع التسليم الصغر، فلا تسلم صغيرة لا تحتمل الوطء إلى زوجها حتى تكبر ويزول هذا المانع؛ لأنه قد يحمله فرط الشهوة على الجماع فتتضرر به.

The madhab of the jurists is that being a minor is also an impediment to handing over a wife to her husband. A minor who is not capable of withstanding intercourse will not be handed over to the husband. Until she becomes an elder and this impediment is removed. That is because sexual desire will tempt the husband to have intercourse with her and the wife will be harmed by it.

وذهب المالكية والشافعية إلى زوال مانع الصغر بتحملها للوطء.قال الشافعية: ولو قال الزوج: سلموها لي ولا أطؤها حتى تحتمله، فإنه لا تسلم له وإن كان ثقة، إذ لا يؤمن من هيجان الشهوة.

The Malikis and Shafi'is say that when a minor is able to withstand intercourse this impediment is removed.

The Shafi'is say that if the husband says 'hand her over to me and I will not have intercourse until she is able' even then she will not be handed over to him, even if he is trustworthy. That is because there is no reasonable security from his lust.

وقال الحنابلة: إذا بلغت الصغيرة تسع سنين دفعت إلى الزوج، وليس لهم أن يحبسوها بعد التسع ولو كانت مهزولة الجسم، وقد نص أحمد على ذلك، لما ثبت أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بنى بعائشة وهي بنت تسع سنين (١) لكن قال القاضي: ليس هذا عندي على طريقة التحديد وإنما ذكره؛ لأن الغالب أن ابنة تسع يتمكن من الاستمتاع بها.وإذا سلمت بنت تسع سنين إليه وخافت على نفسها الإفضاء من عظمه فلها منعه من جماعها ويستمتع بها كما يستمتع من الحائض

The Hanbalis say when a minor is nine years old then she will be handed over to her husband. After nine years they (parents) will not have a right to detain her even if she has a skinny body. Imam Ahmad has stated this. Because of the hadith:

The Prophet ﷺ consummated his marriage with Aisha when she was nine years old

However Qadi has stated: 'I do not think that this is the maximum limit, rather (Imam Ahmad) has mentioned that usually at the age of nine a female becomes able to have intimacy.'

If a nine year old is handed over to the husband and she fears that she will be harmed because of the husband being bigger, then she will have the right to stop the husband from having intercourse and he will only have intimacy with her in the same way that he has intimacy with a menstruating woman in her period (i.e. with a waist-wrap and he will not have penetrative sex but receive pleasure by other means of intimacy).

Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah has not seperately mentioned the Hanafi stance on this matter, in this place. However the following is the relevant ruling from the Hanafi text Fataawa al-Alamgiriyyah:

واختلفوا في وقت الدخول بالصغيرة فقيل لا يدخل بها ما لم تبلغ وقيل يدخل بها إذا بلغت تسع سنين، كذا في البحر الرائق. وأكثر المشايخ على أنه لا عبرة للسن في هذا الباب وإنما العبرة للطاقة إن كانت ضخمة سمينة تطيق الرجال ولا يخاف عليها المرض من ذلك؛ كان للزوج أن يدخل بها، وإن لم تبلغ تسع سنين، وإن كانت نحيفة مهزولة لا تطيق الجماع ويخاف عليها المرض لا يحل للزوج أن يدخل بها، وإن كبر سنها وهو الصحيح

And there is disagreement on the time of consummation of marriage with a minor. Hence, some said that he should not enter into her until she becomes Baligh (reaches puberty), and some said that he may enter her when she reaches nine years of age, and this is recorded in (the book) Al-Bahr ar-Raiq.

And most of the Sheikhs are of the opinion that age does not matter rather her ability matters. If she is physically mature and can withstand intercourse with men and does not fear affliction with illness because of it then the husband has the right to consummate the marriage with her, even if she has not yet reached nine years of age. And if she is skinny and weak and can not withstand intercourse and fears illness because of it, then it is not permissible for the husband to consummate the marriage with her, even if she is older in numeric age. And this is correct.

And Nawawi mentioned:

وقال مالك والشافعي وأبو حنيفة: حد ذلك أن تطيق الجماع. ويختلف ذلك باختلافهن ولا يضبط بسن

Malik, Shafi’i and Abu Hanifah said: The limit of that (consumation) is when she is able to have intercourse, which varies from person to person so no numeric age is set.

Sharah Muslim Nawawi

  • Although nawawi quotes saying Malik, Shafi'i and Abu Hanifa in saying that, is there an actual reference in their own books or somebody else's books with a chain attributing this opinion to them?
    – Hisham
    Commented May 1, 2023 at 21:10

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