These verses describe the life of most people in general, they do not apply to each and every human. There are exceptions which should be evident to anyone who uses reason. Re-read 22:5, it says:
خلقناكم ... ثم من نطفة ثم من علقة ثم من مضغة مخلقة وغير مخلقة لنبين لكم ونقر في الأرحام ما نشاء إلى أجل مسمى ثم نخرجكم طفلا ثم لتبلغوا أشدكم
We created you ... from a sperm-drop, then from a clinging clot, and then from a lump of flesh, formed and unformed - that We may show you. And We settle in the wombs whom We will for a specified term, then We bring you out as a child, and then [We develop you] that you may reach your [time of] maturity.
— Quran 22:5
Adam was a human. But he was not created from a sperm-drop. He also did not go through the other stages mentioned here: he was not a clinging clot, he was not a lump of flesh, he was never inside a womb, he was never a child. The same goes for Eve.
Similarly, Jesus was not created from sperm-drop as he had no father, hence he too is an exception:
قالت أنى يكون لي غلام ولم يمسسني بشر ولم أك بغيا
She said, "How can I have a boy while no man has touched me and I have not been unchaste?"
— Quran 19:20
إن مثل عيسى عند الله كمثل آدم خلقه من تراب ثم قال له كن فيكون
Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, "Be," and he was.
— Quran 3:59
Further, re-read the verse where it says:
ثم نخرجكم طفلا ثم لتبلغوا أشدكم
We bring you out as a child, and then [We develop you] that you may reach your [time of] maturity.
Not every human comes out as a child, rather some are miscarried and die within the womb. Also not every child reaches maturity, rather some die in childhood.
Also consider the case of the Ashab al-Kahf. They slept for over 300 years and after that they guessed:
قال قائل منهم كم لبثتم قالوا لبثنا يوما أو بعض يوم
Said a speaker from among them, "How long have you remained [here]?" They said, "We have remained a day or part of a day."
— Quran 18:19
Which means that they at-least did not become frail after a period of 300 years. Otherwise they would not have thought that only one day had passed as their bodies would have made it evident that many years had passed.
Hence there are exceptions and Jesus is already an exception to part of the verse (creation from sperm). So he can also be an exception to the other part of the verse.