I wonder if the concept of Reincarnation has been clearly refused in Qur'an/Islam. If so, in which verse/hadith?
Wikipedia defines Reincarnation as:
Reincarnation is the religious or philosophical concept that the soul or spirit, after biological death, begins a new life in a new body that may be human, animal or spiritual depending on the moral quality of the previous life's actions.
One of the primary beliefs of Islam is the belief in the Hereafter, resurrection, the Paradise and the Hell.
Allah says (interpretation of the meaning]:
“Everyone shall taste death. Then unto Us you shall be returned”[ al-‘Ankaboot 29:57 ]
And He says (interpretation of meaning):
“To Him is the return of all of you. The Promise of Allah is true. It is He Who begins the creation and then will repeat it, that He may reward with justice those who believed and did deeds of righteousness. But those who disbelieved will have a drink of boiling fluids and painful torment because they used to disbelieve” [ Yunus 10:4 ]
He also says [interpretation of the meaning]:
Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting.
And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection (without any helper, or protector or defender)” [ Maryam 19:94-95 ]
And He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah! Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Surely, He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt” [ al-Nisa’ 4:87 ]
And He says concerning the disbelievers who think they will not be resurrected (interpretation of the meaning):
“The disbelievers pretend that they will never be resurrected (for the Account). Say (O Muhammad): Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed of (and recompensed for) what you did; and that is easy for Allah” [ al-Taghaabun 64:7 ]
Allah says refuting those who claim reincarnation (interpretation of the meaning):
Do they not see how many of the generations We have destroyed before them Verily, they will not return to them. [ Ya-Sin 36:31 ]
Which means “do you not learn a lesson from those nations whom Allah destroyed before you of those who disbelieved in the Messengers. They came to this world only once, and will not return to it."
There are several hadeeth as well which mention and confirm resurrection. For example:
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “In man there is a bone which will not be consumed by the earth, and from it he will be regenerated on the Day of Resurrection.” They asked, “What bone is that, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “The tailbone.” (Narrated by Muslim, 5255).
The idea of reincarnation is rejection and denial of resurrection and hereafter and it has been refuted by texts of Islam.
According to this verse there is no reincarnation in Islam
حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ارْجِعُونِ ﴿٩٩﴾ لَعَلِّي أَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا فِيمَا تَرَكْتُ ۚ كَلَّا ۚ إِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَائِلُهَا ۖ وَمِن وَرَائِهِم بَرْزَخٌ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ
[23:99] [For such is the state of the disbelievers], until, when death comes to one of them, he says, "My Lord, send me back
[23:100] That I might do righteousness in that which I left behind." No! It is only a word he is saying; and behind them is a barrier until the Day they are resurrected.
كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّـهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتًا فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ۖ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
[2:28] How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were lifeless and He brought you to life; then He will cause you to die, then He will bring you [back] to life, and then to Him you will be returned.
There are verses which contradict Reincarnation other than Barzakh itself which clearly contradicts it (since you're asking for them specifically):
Al-Mu'minun: [For such is the state of the disbelievers], until, when death comes to one of them, he says, "My Lord, send me back (99) That I might do righteousness in that which I left behind." No! It is only a word he is saying; and behind them is a barrier until the Day they are resurrected (100)
Ya-sin: And the Horn will be blown; and at once from the graves to their Lord they will hasten (51) They will say, "O woe to us! Who has raised us up from our sleeping place?" [The reply will be], "This is what the Most Merciful had promised, and the messengers told the truth."(52)It will not be but one blast, and at once they are all brought present before Us (53)
Al-baqarah: How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were lifeless and He brought you to life; then He will cause you to die, then He will bring you [back] to life, and then to Him you will be returned(28)
And a hadith on this matter from Alī ibn Mūsā al-Riḍā:
من قال بالتناسخ فهو كافر بالله العظيم مكذب بالجنة والنار...
Someone who believes in Reincarnation is a disbeliever (kafir) and has refuted heaven and hell.
Reincarnation is not in accordance with the Qur'an or Sunnah. In Islam we believe in the hereafter, meaning we die in this life and and are brought back to life in the next. The concept of reincarnation is that someone dies and then begins a new life in a new form. Islam rejects this concept, we believe that when we die we go to the Barzakh and we stay there until The Day of Judgement. Furthermore the concept of reincarnation basically means one doesn't die, just begins a new life in a new form/body, but Allah says:
كُلُّ نَفۡسٍ۬ ذَآٮِٕقَةُ ٱلۡمَوۡتِ ثُمَّ إِلَيۡنَا تُرۡجَعُونَ
Every soul shall taste of death; then unto Us ye shall be returned.
Surat Al Ankaboot Ayah 57
Short answer is no.
According to the Quran:
The example of [this] worldly life is but like rain which We have sent down from the sky that the plants of the earth absorb - [those] from which men and livestock eat - until, when the earth has taken on its adornment and is beautified and its people suppose that they have capability over it, there comes to it Our command by night or by day, and We make it as a harvest, as if it had not flourished yesterday. Thus do We explain in detail the signs for a people who give thought.
إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَاءٍ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَاخْتَلَطَ بِهِ نَبَاتُ الْأَرْضِ مِمَّا يَأْكُلُ النَّاسُ وَالْأَنْعَامُ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَخَذَتِ الْأَرْضُ زُخْرُفَهَا وَازَّيَّنَتْ وَظَنَّ أَهْلُهَا أَنَّهُمْ قَادِرُونَ عَلَيْهَا أَتَاهَا أَمْرُنَا لَيْلًا أَوْ نَهَارًا فَجَعَلْنَاهَا حَصِيدًا كَأَن لَّمْ تَغْنَ بِالْأَمْسِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
[10:24] Saheeh International
The analogy of life in the dunya(the here now/the near/the low) is what the Quran is pointing out. Life of a soul is symbolized as the droplet of water coming from the heavens/sky/samaa (notice not akhirah/laters/which is not necessarily the end, i.e. life after the dunya that could be once, twice, thrice etc.). This water mixes up with other creation such as the various kinds of plantation. This symbolizes the different kinds of species this life of a soul can attach to. This may imply that it's attachment to the current host is dependent on the worthiness of this soul's deed in it's past life.
The barzakh polemic can be solved by pointing out that once this life detaches from it's manifestation in the dunya, it then reaches an intermediate state (the barzakh) where the soul awaits for a trial..at this point the soul cannot return back to the manifestation in the past dunya where it is once attached to. It awaits a new allocation of a later life (the akhirah) and the cycle begins again.
There is no Reincarnation belief in Islam, but the Reincarnation comes from Islam.
Almost all kind of corrupted and baatil mis-beliefs come from ancient Islam ummats. After their nabis die, their original Islam beliefs start to corrupt over time, and they finally become mythologies and these kind of mis-beliefs (like Reincarnation).
That is the reason why the mythology and Abrahamic religions look so much alike.