It seems like forceful conversion and I do not understand why it shouldn't:

[2:191] وَٱقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ ۚ وَٱلْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ ٱلْقَتْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُقَـٰتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ حَتَّىٰ يُقَـٰتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ ۖ فَإِن قَـٰتَلُوكُمْ فَٱقْتُلُوهُمْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ جَزَآءُ ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ ١٩١

And kill them [in battle] wherever you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you, and fitnah is worse than killing. And do not fight them at al-Masjid al-Ḥarām until they fight you there. But if they fight you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of disbelievers. — Saheeh INTERNATIONAL

[2:192] فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوْا۟ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ ١٩٢

AND IF THEY CEASE, then indeed, Allāh IS FORGIVING AND MERCIFUL. — Saheeh International

What will ALLAH forgive about them besides their repentance to Islam?

2:193 وَقَـٰتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌۭ وَيَكُونَ ٱلدِّينُ لِلَّهِ ۖ فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوْا۟ فَلَا عُدْوَٰنَ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ ١٩٣

Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah and [until] religion [i.e., worship] is [acknowledged to be] for Allāh. But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression [i.e., assault] except against THE OPPRESSORS. — Saheeh International

Again the word with the root ظ ل م is used. And there is a verse saying those who sin do injustice to themselves. Disbelief is a sin and therefore injustice. So does this actually mean it's supporting forceful conversion? even reading Tafsir Ibn Kathir, I did not find an alternative interpretation.

  • 4
    Does this answer your question? Is idol destruction a form of religious intolerance? also see Can polytheists pay jizya?
    – UmH
    Commented Oct 29, 2022 at 2:42
  • 1
    Also please properly format quotes so that they are distinct from your own words. Currently it is hard to read what you are saying.
    – UmH
    Commented Oct 29, 2022 at 2:49
  • I recommend adding the English translation without the Arabic, and if you want to emphasize a specific word, please write that word rather than the whole ayat because it is hard(takes_longer) to quote/format Arabic and for religious restrictions of touching the Quran without wudu/taharah.
    – AbduRahman
    Commented Oct 29, 2022 at 10:53

2 Answers 2


There is No Force Conversion in Islam

Quran 2:256 (Sahih International Translation)

There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become distinct from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in ṭāghūt and believes in Allāh has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allāh is Hearing and Knowing.

The renowned classical mufassir (commentator) of the Qur’ān, Ismāʿīl ibn Kathīr (d. 1373), said that this passage means, “Do not force anyone to become Muslim, for Islam is plain and clear, and its proofs and evidence are plain and clear. Therefore, there is no need to force anyone to embrace Islam.” Muslims have a collective responsibility to share the message of Islam, but the normative way to do this has been clearly described in the Qur’ān: “Invite all to the Way of your Lord with wisdom and kind advice, and only debate with them in the best manner” (16:125).

Read more about it here: Did Islam Spread by the Sword? A Critical Look at Forced Conversions

You need to read the Tafsirs regarding these ayahs

In order to understand these ayahs, you have to know the context, why were these ayahs sent down. These ayahs were sent down to give the Muslims at the time of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) the permission to fight back against their oppressors whom were the disbelievers. This is NOT a command for Muslims throughout all time to go commit forced conversions and kill those who aren't muslim.

Tanwīr al-Miqbās min Tafsīr Ibn 'Abbās , Quran 2:190-2:193:

[2:190] (Fight in the way of Allah) in obedience of Allah whether in the Sacred Precinct or in other places (against those who fight against you) against those who initiate fight against you, (but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors) He does not love those who initiate fighting whether in the Sacred Precinct or in other locations.

[2:191] (And slay them) if they start the fight against you (wherever ye find them) whether in the Sacred Precinct or in other places, (and drive them) out of Mecca (out of the places whence they drove you out) as they drove you out of it, (for persecution) associating partners with Allah and worshipping idols (is worse) more evil (than slaughter) in the Sacred Precinct. (And fight not with them) do not initiate a fight with them (at the Inviolable Place of Worship) in the Sacred Precinct (until they attack you there) until they initiate a fight with you in the Sacred Precinct, (but if they attack you (there)) first (then slay them. Such is the reward of disbelievers) i.e. death is their reward.

[2:192] (But if they desist) from their disbelief, association of partners with Allah and turn to Allah (then lo! Allah is Forgiving) towards those who turn to Him, (Merciful) towards those who die in a state of repentance.

[2:193] (And fight them) if they initiate fighting against you whether you are in the Sacred Precinct or not (until persecution is no more) until there is not association of partners with Allah in the Sacred Precinct, (and religion is for Allah) and Islam and worship of Allah reign in the Sacred Precinct. (If they desist) from fighting you in the Sacred Precinct, (then let there be no hostility) you are not allowed to kill them (except against wrong-doers) except those who start the fight against you.

Fair Treatment of non-Muslims

Quran 60:8 (Sahih International Translation)

Allāh does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes - from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allāh loves those who act justly.

Quran 60:9 (Sahih International Translation)

Allāh only forbids you from those who fight you because of religion and expel you from your homes and aid in your expulsion - [forbids] that you make allies of them. And whoever makes allies of them, then it is those who are the wrongdoers.

  • I agree with there being no compulsion in religion, but what about the pacifist interpretation which the early Muslim conquests contradict?. Not saying this is a bad thing but the Arabic word used there and translated as "begin not hostilities" does not mean that. The Rashidun Caliphate started war on Persia yet it was fine to assist the Caliphate in their war. Even Salman the Persian helped the Caliphate
    – Vbscript
    Commented Oct 28, 2022 at 22:07
  • Islam is peaceful, not pacifistic. In many early Muslim conquests, how do you think they were so easily successful? Historically, the non-muslims in Byzantine and Andalus were getting heavily taxed and some Christians denominations were being oppressed by another, so they requested for Muslims to take over in order to ease their burden. Fighting an oppressor, "liberating" a people from an oppressor is considered halal and permissible. The actions of certain Muslims that did bad don't reflect the teachings of Islam.
    – YoMango
    Commented Oct 28, 2022 at 22:16
  • @Vbscript If you're interested in Islamic Just-war theory then check out this link yaqeeninstitute.org/read/paper/…
    – YoMango
    Commented Oct 29, 2022 at 7:02
  • yaqeeninstitute is known for it's deviance. Not necessarily everything they say is false but I don't blindly take halal and haram from them.
    – Vbscript
    Commented Oct 29, 2022 at 9:14
  • If you're claiming deviance then you should back up your claim with evidence. What deviance are they doing? Anybody whose read their articles and seen their content would know that they are legitimate and are heavily well-sourced.
    – YoMango
    Commented Oct 29, 2022 at 9:33

You are missing the context.

This passage shows what happened at Hudaibiya in the sixth year of the Hijra, but it's unclear if it was revealed at that time.

By this time, the Muslims had become a solid and influential group. Many of them had been forced to leave Makkah, where the Pagans had set up an intolerant dictatorship, persecuting Muslims, stopping them from returning to their homes, and even keeping them from going on the Pilgrimage when everyone agreed to stop fighting. This was the worst kind of intolerance, oppression, and dictatorship, and the fact that the Muslims were willing to fight for their rights as Arab citizens led to an agreement they stuck to. The Pagans, on the other hand, didn't care if they broke their faith, and it's not essential to talk about what happened after this.

You could say Islam is the religion of peace, goodwill, mutual understanding, and faith. But it won't stand for wrongdoing, and its soldiers will risk their lives to defend honor, justice, and the religion they hold dear. As shown by the life of the Prophet, their ideal is a mix of heroic virtue, selfless kindness, and gentleness. They believe in being brave and following rules. Discipline, duty, and a constant effort to establish truth and righteousness by using all the physical, moral, intellectual, and spiritual tools they have.

Suppress faith: in the narrower and broader senses. If they want to stop you from practicing your sacred rites by force, they have declared war on your religion, and it would be cowardly to ignore the challenge or fail to get rid of the tyranny. The word in Arabic is Din, which means "all." It makes you think of debt, duty, obedience, judgment, fairness, faith, religion, rituals, etc. This part of the sentence means "until there is Law, for God."

If the other side stops persecuting you, you will no longer be against them as a group. This does not mean, however, that you are now friends with oppression. Your fight is against what is wrong. It would be best if you weren't angry at men.


  • The Holy Quran English Translation Of The Meanings And Commentary King Fahd Printing Complex Yusuf Ali Translation 1991, Page-80-83.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .