I’ll divide the answer into two points:
- Every Ummah/individual has its/his own troubles that are part of their destiny, Allah -SWT- said [90:4]:
لقد خلقنا الإنسان في كَبَد
Indeed, We have created humankind in ˹constant˺ struggle.
Some of the troubles are direct consequences to the sins and Kufr... these are the ones that could be avoided (entirely or partially ) if the Ummah/individual followes the rules of Allah (teachings of the Holy book and the prophet), and as mentioned in @goldPseudo's answer, the verse you’ve mentioned in the question is a general talk to the Ummah (Bani Israel), but still, the individual in that Ummah could have troubles, this is a destiny that no living being could be excepted from.
- Furthermore, It's the other way around! Kufr is a stronger cause to having pleasur and avoiding troubles in Donya! read 43:33
وَلَوْلَآ أَن يَكُونَ ٱلنَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَٰحِدَةً لَّجَعَلْنَا لِمَن يَكْفُرُ بِٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ لِبُيُوتِهِمْ سُقُفًا مِّن فِضَّةٍ وَمَعَارِجَ عَلَيْهَا يَظْهَرُونَ
And were it not that all mankind would have become of one community (all disbelievers, desiring worldly life only), We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Beneficent (Allah), silver roofs for their houses, and elevators (and stair-ways, etc. of silver) whereby they ascend,
That is, once an individual became a disbeliever, the Donya (money, buildings, etc..) would be all to him! but Allah -SWT- is merciful, so to weak individuals not choose Kufr seeking for the Donya, and this is why Allah -SWT- let disbelievers live in poverty and weakness.
 What I meant by partially, is that, Allah -SWT- will provide you with power, patient and satisfaction when you face troubles and not let you face these troubles alone and get frustrated and full of anger... this is the hidden part of the equation, and the only winner here is the more obeying, due to his goods, the troubles will have less impact on him, his mentality and self.