The Jews did not originate in Egypt; rather they originated in Palestine, but Egypt was one of the significant stages in the history of the Jews. That is because the Jewish religion began at the time of the Prophet of Allah Ya‘qoob/Jacob (peace be upon him), who was born and lived in the Palestine.
Then from Jacob twelve sons:
Yosef/Joseph was sold to man in Egypt:
The man from Egypt who bought him(Yoosef) said to his wife, “Take good care of him, perhaps he may be useful to us or we may adopt him as a son.” This is how We established Joseph in the land, so that We might teach him the interpretation of dreams. Allah’s Will always prevails, but most people do not know.
Later Yosef/Joseph was given employed and trusted by the King of Egypt:
The King said, “Bring him to me. I will employ him exclusively in my service.” And when Joseph spoke to him, the King said, “Today you are highly esteemed and fully trusted by us.”
Later he and his family reunited:
Then he raised his parents to the throne, and they all fell down in prostration to Joseph, who then said, “O my dear father! This is the interpretation of my old dream. My Lord has made it come true. He was truly kind to me when He freed me from prison, and brought you all from the desert after Satan had ignited rivalry between me and my siblings.2 Indeed my Lord is subtle in fulfilling what He wills. Surely He ˹alone˺ is the All-Knowing, All-Wise.”
After the deaths of Jacob and Joseph (peace be upon them), with the passage of time and the succession of kings, the situation of the Children of Israel in Egypt changed from one of honour and respect to one of humiliation and ignominy, because the Pharaoh of Egypt persecuted and enslaved the Israelites. Allah, may He be exalted, says:
“And (remember) when We rescued you from Firauns (Pharaoh) people, who
were afflicting you with the worst torment, killing your sons and
letting your women live. And in that was a great trial from your Lord”
Afterwards Moses And Aaron arrived and By Allah's will the Israelites were freed from Idolatry and Pharaoh.
The Jews/Sons of Israel ruled in Egypt for a long period of time but the situation of the Children of Israel in Egypt changed from one of honored and respected to one of humiliation and ignominy, because the Pharaoh of Egypt persecuted and enslaved the Israelites.