If we used undoubtable rationality to reach the undoubtable fact that God exists and much more existential facts, then we indeed have to use it as well to reach the fact that free will exists, or else, it isn't reliable for finding truth.

Why I doubt that free will exists:

  • Everything has a cause except for God, so, with enough knowledge, we can predetermine the future, which doesn't apply to free will, which states that our choices are indeterministic; thus, it is illogical
  • I never felt that I have free will, I always find myself either driven into a choice or can't choose at all, I really have many choices inhand, but have to be driven into a choice, these are the factors on which my choices depend:
    • Previous experiences and knowledge
    • Biological factors
    • Genetic factors

Is free will really logical or not? if yes prove it to me, else, show me on what matters logic can't be applied and why specifically these matters.

  • We don't use logic in religion. This is the way of Ahlul-Kalam who use religion only to support their pre-conceived and innovated principles of reason, logic, and philosophy. If logic was used we wouldn't be wiping over the socks.
    – Riyaz
    Commented Jul 31, 2022 at 6:24

2 Answers 2


Determinism in Physics

Possibility of Non-Determinist Mechanisms

Some phenomena in Quantum physics still lack deterministic explanations. This does not prove that there's no such mechanism; three of four assumptions also allow for a determined model:

  • the origin has not been discovered so far
  • the origin cannot be observed at all
  • the origin cannot be observed without changing the state of the system
  • the behaviour is really arbitrary

** Chaotic Systems**

Even a quite simple mechanical system like a multiple pendulum, where everything may be assumed to follow known determined physical rules runs through so many unstable states that it is not possible to predict the movement of it in the long run because even a tiny difference in the assumed properties or the initial state may result in a significant deviation.

The system that integrates human thought is by far more chaotic than a physical system. We don't even fully understand our own conscious decisions; the sum of concious, unconscious action of mankind and (appearant) accident cannot be predicted in any way by humans or artificial intelligence. That is why the assumption of a purely deterministic model of the world is not helpful.


The controversy between the teaching that God holds everything in His hand and nothing can happen against His will, and the teaching that everyone is liable for his deeds has been a subject of discussion in Islam from the beginning. We find positions that say that

  • God has fixed all what happens right from the beginning
  • God established the rules of all from the beginning but the rules contain the option to break His commandments
  • God is interactive, acting in the situation

All three can be backed by the interpretation of the Quran.

The first two are deterministic, the third is not.

From the chaos theory, the first two can be both true at the same time. It is possible that God has created a fully deterministic world but no-one except Him is able to forsee its development.

The key point is that even if our lives are theoretically determined, our actions, that are influenced by our belief, are part of this system and it does matter what we say and what we do. True and false prophecy and teaching is part of this system as well.

In this sense, it's better you assume that the world is not determined (even in case that this is not really true) and take your responsibilities and follow the advice God has given us than if you give in to a misunderstood fatalism that incites you not even to try to follow His advice and do good. Our influence on all is indeed limited, and so are our possibilities to live an ideal life. But our choice matters.

An extant and recommendable overview on this question is published on Wikipedia

  • If the world is deterministic, then free will is an illusion and God will judge us on our choices, which we have no control on, so God is not merciful.
    – AZeed
    Commented Jul 31, 2022 at 18:02
  • If the world is undeterministic, then not everything has a cause, then reason can be false, and thus, all of our knowledge can be false, then God's existence could be false.
    – AZeed
    Commented Jul 31, 2022 at 18:49
  • The possibility of error exist independently from whether the world is 100% deterministic. It is quite safe to assume that our knowledge is neither completely false nor completely true.
    – Jeschu
    Commented Jul 31, 2022 at 19:15
  • So 1+1 may equal 3?
    – AZeed
    Commented Jul 31, 2022 at 19:38
  • No. It's rather that in some cases your mathematical model is imprecise or you don't have a mathematical model.
    – Jeschu
    Commented Jul 31, 2022 at 20:10

Some inclined to atheistic idea view the free-will incompatible with an Omniscient God. They consider that results of tests of life is predetermined and hence argue that why an all-knowing and wise God would do so.

Some having theist viewpoint have the notion that the God has the future knowledge but he do not interfere with it. For example, a teacher may estimate very correctly that which student will fail in a test by accessing it's daily progress, but this does not mean that the teacher has fixed the future of the child. Some say that the child has free will in this case, while others argue that still, his future is pre-destined , but he is not known to it. Hence, the overlapping notion of free will and unknowingness is obviously debatable.

Conclusion :

Free-will is a term vaguely defined and has a range of definitions. It would have been better that to what extent do you define free-will. The compatibility of free-will, an omniscient God and determinism is debated and there is no general consensus among this issue among philosophers.

What about the faith of believers ?

A believer, even according to the religion itself, is not required to know everything.

...I know what you do not know. [Al-Baqara : 30]

Knowing things which can mark our religion unambiguous and truthful (in some ways) are sufficient to live by.

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