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In quran 5:73 those are declared disbelievers who believe in trinity.

My question is after mentioning trinity why does quran mentions the two persons as Jesus and Mary in 5:75. Now anyone would conclude from this that quran is assuming mary to be a part of triniry.

I know though she is worshipped but what's the point of mentioning her in the context of quran 5:73?

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  • Because when some of the Christian sects said "Allah is the third of three" they meant Allah, Jesus and Mary. While others meant Allah, Jesus and Ruh al-Qudus.
    – UmH
    Jun 13, 2022 at 15:57

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The trinity dogma teaches that the Father (God), the son (Jesus) and the Holy Spirit (Ruh al-Qudus) together form God.

I know the argument from Christian apologetics, saying, the Prophet (p.b.u.h) didn't even know what Trinity is.

They may even be right. Why should he have learned from them and not directly from God? Maybe, he even asked Him to get an answer. The answer is written down in the Quran in various passages, admonishing,

  • To pray only to God, and not to Jesus and not to Mary
  • Not to see God as one composed of three entities but only as One.

Those two teachings are interlinked, as I will explain later. Let us first read the most relevant passages:

(5:72-75)

They disbelieve those who say, “God is the Messiah the son of Mary.” But the Messiah himself said, “O Children of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord. Whoever associates others with God, God has forbidden him Paradise, and his dwelling is the Fire. The wrongdoers have no saviors.” They disbelieve those who say, “God is the third of three.” But there is no deity except the One God. If they do not refrain from what they say, a painful torment will befall those among them who disbelieve. Will they not repent to God and ask His forgiveness? God is Forgiving and Merciful. The Messiah son of Mary was only a messenger, before whom other Messengers had passed away, and his mother was a woman of truth. They both used to eat food. Note how We make clear the revelations to them; then note how deluded they are.

(5:116)

And God will say, “O Jesus son of Mary, did you say to the people, `Take me and my mother as gods rather than God?'“ He will say, “Glory be to You! It is not for me to say what I have no right to. Had I said it, You would have known it. You know what is in my soul, and I do not know what is in your soul. You are the Knower of the hidden.

(4:171)

O People of the Scripture! Do not exaggerate in your religion, and do not say about God except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, is the Messenger of God, and His Word that He conveyed to Mary, and a Spirit from Him. So believe in God and His messengers, and do not say, “Three.” Refrain—it is better for you. God is only one God. Glory be to Him—that He should have a son. To Him belongs everything in the heavens and the earth, and God is a sufficient Protector.

Now, the "Trinity" does not include Mary but the Holy Spirit.

The Holy Spirit is - as to the Quran, the Hadith, the Gospel and the Torah - described as an intermediate between humans and God. Through this Spirit we see God. It is not completely false to see the Holy Spirit as a part of God; so to say the part or God we can see and perceive. This does not put into question that God is One. It is also uncommon that Christians pray to the Holy Spirit instead of God. This is probably why the answer of the Quran does not concern the Holy Spirit admonishing not to say that God and the Holy Spirit are One.

Instead, the Quran admonishes not to see Jesus as a (partial) God and not to pray to Jesus, and not to say that Mary is the Mother of God and to pray to her. But such was and still is the custom among many Christians - although also according to the Gospel writings, Jesus did not teach to pray to him or to his mother but taught to pray to God.

It is this kind of worship to Jesus, who is the Messiah and a true Messenger of God but not God, and to Mary, who is a honourable woman but not a mother of God that is taught to be an error.

So, the question may have parted from the not-understanding of the trinity dogma; the answer comes to the actual weak point of the practise and believe which does not concern the Holy Spirit but - in addition to the trinity dogma - the worship to Mary.

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Read this for a detailed analysis: Trinity in the Quran.

Some Christian apologists say the context of the verse 5:73 indicates that the “three” mentioned in the verse are Allah, Jesus, and Mary.

The Quran says two verses later:

The Messiah, son of Mary, was not but a messenger; [other] messengers have passed on before him. And his mother was a supporter of truth. They both used to eat food. Look how We make clear to them the signs; then look how they are deluded. (5:75)

They say: It seems that the Quran is trying to prove Mary was not a god at the same time it is trying to prove Jesus is not a God. This is right after the verse that mentions the trinity. So, it seems the trinity mentioned in that verse includes Jesus and Mary due to this contextual verse.

They say: It appears from the context that the Quran thinks the three worshiped by Christians are Allah, Jesus, and Mary. This is obviously a false understanding because Christians do not think Mary is part of the trinity.

I say: First of all, we grant that the Quran criticizes at least some Christians for their worship of Mary. However, just because Mary is mentioned as being taken as a god does not imply that she is necessarily included in the “three” mentioned in the other verses.

The verse provided as context is pretty weak evidence. It is circumstantial at best.

It does not even particularly mention Mary was taken as god even though it is implied. Even if we took that implication, it is not implied she is part of a group of three in any way.

Allah simply mentions her to refute the notion that Mary 1) should be worshiped or 2) could be the mother of God.

  1. She should not be worshiped because she is not a god. Rather she is a human that eats.

  2. Jesus cannot be God because Mary was his mother. How is that? Babies grow because of the food their mother eat. So, mentioning that Mary eats is another way of refuting the notion that Jesus can be God. In this understanding, the verse is not even talking about Mary being worshiped in the first place.

In conclusion, to assume that Mary must be part of the trinity just because the trinity was mentioned a few verses ago is baseless. It is perfectly possible to understand the verse without thinking Mary is part of the trinity.

It is important not to chase ambiguous probabilities and rather refer to what is clear in the text.

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