Tafasir are made in the context of knowledge people have at the time.
If a certain verse has to do with something which people in the past did not understand well, that is how their tafsir will be.
I can see a bunch of explanations of this verse simply looking at it. I am not sure why you would be stuck on it.
Most important foundation to understand is that half of this is a matter of the ghayb. We don't know how the Jinn are affected. We can only see the physical portion.
- Stars themselves are thrown.
This is because throwing is from the eye of the beholder. Stars are moving and quite fast. Perhaps their movement somehow restricts the Jinn.
Someone could object and pretend throwing must mean they are targeted and thrown rather than plain movement, but that's their interpretation.
- Meteors and asteroids are thrown
Almost all objects, including planets, are made from stars at the end of the day. For example, meteors are often made of iron. How do you think iron forms? In the core of stars.
But, Allah knows best exactly how it works. It is difficult to make a clearly correct interpretation because the verse is essentially about the ghayb, not science. Things could be thrown in front of our eyes and we could not recognize it because it seems to us normal movement even when there is something in the unseen going on.