If you have a particular problem then it is unlikely that a specific ma'thur dua exists for your specific circumstances. Rather you may need to compose a dua in your own words and supplicate to Allah through that.
There are however ma'thur duas for practical results in this world. Below are some Quranic Duas that were made by various Prophets in difficult times and caused their problem to be solved. Using them is prescribed as it comes under following the examples of the Prophets (Quran 6:90):
The Dua of Job (Ayub) عليه السلام . When he was sticken with illness and lost his family, he supplicated to Allah with these words and that led to it all being restored:
وأيوب إذ نادى ربه أني مسني الضر وأنت أرحم الراحمين . فاستجبنا له فكشفنا ما به من ضر وآتيناه أهله ومثلهم معهم رحمة من عندنا وذكرى للعابدين
And [mention] Job, when he called to his Lord, "Indeed, adversity has touched me, and you are the Most Merciful of the merciful."
So We responded to him and removed what afflicted him of adversity. And We gave him [back] his family and the like thereof with them as mercy from Us and a reminder for the worshippers [of Allah].
— Quran 21:83-84
The dua of Jonah عليه السلام . He was thrown overboard from a ship and swallowed by a fish. He supplicated with the following wording which lead to him being safely rescued.
وذا النون إذ ذهب مغاضبا فظن أن لن نقدر عليه فنادى في الظلمات أن لا إله إلا أنت سبحانك إني كنت من الظالمين . فاستجبنا له ونجيناه من الغم وكذلك ننجي المؤمنين
And [mention] the man of the fish (Jonah), when he went off in anger and thought that We would not decree [anything] upon him. And he called out within the darknesses, "There is no deity except You; exalted are You. Indeed, I have been of the wrongdoers."
So We responded to him and saved him from the distress. And thus do We save the believers.
— Quran 21:87-88
The Duas of Noah عليه السلام . He supplicated with it when he was overcome by the disbelievers, and this lead to the flood and saving of Noah and his family from it.
فدعا ربه أني مغلوب فانتصر
So he invoked his Lord, "Indeed, I am overpowered, so help."
— Quran 54:10
The Dua of Moses عليه السلام when the Egyptians planned to assassinate him. The result of which was that he was saved from them:
فخرج منها خائفا يترقب قال رب نجني من القوم الظالمين
So he left it, fearful and anticipating [apprehension]. He said, "My Lord, save me from the wrongdoing people."
— Quran 28:21
The Dua of Moses عليه السلام . He supplicated with these words when he arrived in Madyan homeless and destitute. This lead to him being granted accommodation, employment and a spouse:
فسقى لهما ثم تولى إلى الظل فقال رب إني لما أنزلت إلي من خير فقير
So he watered [their flocks] for them; then he went back to the shade and said, "My Lord, indeed I am, for whatever good You would send down to me, in need."
— Quran 28:24
All of these duas have generic wordings and can be adapted for any problem. There are also many duas which are recorded in ahadith for relief from distress, adversity, grief etc. Some of them are covered here on islamqa.info and here.
You can also increase the chance of your dua being accepted as follows:
Make dua during times of acceptance such as on the day of Arafat, in Ramadan, on Friday, at the time of dawn, at the time of iftar, after daily prayers, during rain, in prostration etc.
Have conviction that Allah will respond to it.
Ask forgiveness for your sins.
Make sure your income etc. is halal.
Use a wasilah, such as through the names of Allah, or through good deeds etc.
Before and after the Dua praise and glorify Allah and send blessings on the Prophet.
Finally, if the problem is not being removed even after your duas, then you should show patience and continue making dua. A dua is only a supplication to Allah, it is Allah's choice when, how and whether he accepts it.
فيكشف ما تدعون إليه إن شاء
He would remove that for which you invoked Him if He willed
— Quran 6:41