The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "Shall I not mention to you some words which, if distress or grief befalls any of you and he offers this Du'a, he is relieved of it? [...] It is the Du'a of Dhul-Nun: There is no god but You, Glory be to You, for I was one of the wrongdoers!" (La ilaha illa anta Subhanak(a), Inni kuntu minadh-dhalimin)
Al-Mustadrak (1/585) graded Sahih by Shaykh Albani in Sahih al-Jam'i (2605)
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "May I not teach you phrases which you utter in distress? (These are:) "Allah, Allah is my Lord, I do not associate anything as partner with Him!" (Allah, Allahu Rabbi la u-shriku bihi shay-a(n))
Abu Dawud (1525) graded Sahih in Sahih Abu Dawud (1364)
And, it is narrated in Ibn as-Sunni (335), graded Sahih in As-Sahihah (5/102 - #2070), when the Prophet (ﷺ) was frightened, he would say:
(Huwallahu Rabbi ...)
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Whoever is afflicted by anxiety, grief, illness, or hardship and he says: Allah is my Lord without partner (Allahu Rabbi la sharika lah), it will be removed from him."
Mu'jam al-Kabir (396) graded Hasan [li Ghayrihi, rather; and Allah knows best] in Sahih al-Jam'i (6040)
The Prophet (ﷺ) once came [...] in a state of fear and said: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah!" (La ilaha illallah)
Ibn A'bbas said: 'Allah is Sufficient for us and He Is the Best Disposer of affairs', was said by Ibrahim when he was thrown into the fire; and it was said by Muhammad when they (i.e. hypocrites) said: "A great army is gathering against you, therefore, fear them, but it only increased their faith and they said: Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer (of affairs, for us)" (Hasbiyallahu wa ni'mal Wakil) - [Surah Al-Imran 173]
And, in At-Tirmidhi (2431), which Abu I'sa classed Hasan to which Shaykh Albani said in As-Sahihah (3/66-8 - #1079): 'It means Hasan li Ghayrihi', and he classed it Sahih for the narration in Ibn Hibban (823) and others; that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:
"How can I be comfortable when the one with the horn is holding it to his lip, his ears listening for when he will be ordered to blow, so he can blow?" 'It was as if that was very hard upon the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ), so he said to them': "Say: Allah is sufficent for us and what a good protector He is, and upon Allah we rely" (Hasbiyallahu wa ni'mal Wakil, A'la-l-lahi tawak-kalna)
When a matter becomes difficult, the Prophet (ﷺ) taught us to say: "O Allah, there is nothing made easy except what you make easy, and You make (the state of) difficulty convenient, if You wish." (Allahumma la sahla illa ma ja-a'l-tahu sahla, wa anta taj-a'lul hadh-na idha shi-ta sahla)
Ibn Hibban (974) and Ibn Hajar classified it as Sahih which is mentioned in Al-Futuhat (4/25)
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "A strong believer is better and is more lovable to Allah than a weak believer, and there is good in everyone, (but) cherish that which gives you benefit (in the Hereafter) and seek help from Allah and do not lose heart, and if anything (in the form of trouble) comes to you, don't say: If I had not done that, it would not have happened so and so, but say: Allah did that what He had ordained to do (Qadarullah wa ma sha-a fa'al) - and your 'if' opens the (gate) for the Satan."
"But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not." [Surah Al-Baqarah 216]
The Prophet (ﷺ), when he saw something he liked, would say: "Praise is to Allah by Whose grace good deeds are completed" (Al-hamdu lillahil-ladhi bi ni'matihi tatimmus-salihat) and if he saw something that he disliked, he would say: "Praise is to Allah in all circumstances" (Al-hamdu lillahi a'la kulli hal)
Ibn as-Sunni (378) graded Sahih in Sahih al-Jam'i (4727)
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Verily, Allah Almighty says: When I put one of my faithful servants to trial and he praises Me, despite his trial, he will rise from his bed free of sin like the day he was born from his mother." [...] "I have confined My servant and put him to trial, so he will be rewarded the same as he used to do when he was healthy."
Musnad Ahmad (17118) and others, graded Hasan by Shaykh Albani in Sahih at-Targhib (3423)
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Who says [once]: (Bismillahil-ladhi la yadur-ru ma-a'smihi shay-un fil ard, wa la fis-sama, wa huwas-sami'ul a'lim) nothing would harm him."
Musnad Ahmad (446) U'bayd bin Abi Qurrah according to Ibn Ma'in: "Nothing wrong with it" and Ibn Abi az-Zinad (Abd al-Rahman), he is Hasan in Hadith, truthful.
A general Hadith, but more specifically related to the Adkhar for morning, evening and at night
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Whoever sees a person afflicted and says: All praise is due to Allah Who saved me from that which He has afflicted you with, and blessed me greatly over many of those whom He has created (Alhamdu lilla-hil-ladhi a'fani mim-mab-talaka bih, wa fad-dalani a'la kathirin mim-man khalaqa tafdila) may Allah spare him from that affliction, whatever it was."
Hilyat al-Awliya (5/13), Akhbar Asbahan (1/323), Tarikh Dimashq (53/330), and in Ad-Du'a (798) - Shaykh Albani graded it Hasan in Sahih al-Jam'i (6248) and said in As-Sahihah (2/151-3 - #602): 'And [they] are all trustworthy men of Al-Bukhari, other than Walid bin Utbah: He is Abu al-Abbas ad-Dimashqi; Al-Bukhari said in his Tarikh al-Kabir: 'The Hadith is well known', [which substantiates that he] knew him, and he who knew was a proof against one who did not know, especially if the knower was like Al-Bukhari, Al-Amir al-Mu'minin fil-Hadith.' Shaykh Al-Hilal stated in his Tahqiq of Ibn as-Sunni (1/362): 'Ibn Hibban mentions it in Ath-Thiqat (9/226), and a group of trustworthy memorizers such as Abu Zur'a ad-Dimashqi narrated from him [in the Tarikh of his].'
Furthermore, it is narrated in Mu'jam as-Saghir (675) and in Kashf al-Astar (3118), which Shaykh Albani mentioned in As-Sahihah (6/531-4 - #2737), graded Hasan in Sahih al-Jam'i (555), that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
"So, if he says [this], then he has indeed given sufficient gratitude (Shukr) for that blessing.
In Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi (9/275) it is explained:
'His statement 'if he sees a person of trials', (which has the) meaning (of) being trialed in his body, such as with having leprosy, or with being extremely short, or being extremely tall, or being blind, or being crippled, or the shape of his hand is distorted or its likes. (Similarly), or a religious related affliction similar to wrongdoing and oppression, and an innovation and disbelief, and other than it.'
And in Majm'u fih Musanafat Ibn al-Bakhtari (158) it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) would have said:
"If one of you sees a calamity in his brother, let him praise Allah Almighty, and let him not hear it."
Shaykh Albani graded this narration as Da'if in Ad-Da'ifah (6/36-7 - #2525). However, the scholars deem its meaning to be authentic. An-Nawawi said in his Kitab al-Adhkar: 'This Dhikr should be said in secret so that he can hear himself, and the one who is afflicted does not hear him, lest his heart would ache for that, unless his calamity is a sin' to reprehend somebody. And Allah knows best.
Allah's Prophet (ﷺ) used to supplicate during the time of trouble (in these words): "There is no god but Allah, the Great, the Tolerant, there is no god but Allah, the Lord of the Magnificent Throne There is no god but Allah, the Lord of the Heaven and the earth, the Lord of the Edifying Throne" (La ilaha illallahul Adhimul Halim, La ilaha illallahu Rabbul Arshil Adhim, La ilaha illallahu Rabbus-samawati wa Rabbul ard, wa Rabbul Arshil Karim)
Muslim (2730); and in At-Tirmidhi (3435), which Abu I'sa graded Hasan Sahih, instead of (... Adhimul Halim ...), we have "... the Forbearing, the Wise ..." (... A'liy-yul Halim ...); concerning the first narration, we have in Adab al-Mufrad (702), which was graded Sahih by Shaykh Albani, narrated with the addition at the end: ... O Allah, avert its evil (... Allahum-masrif sharruh)
In Ibn Majah (3883):
"None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, the Forbearing, the Most Generous; glory is to Allah the Lord of the Mighty Throne; glory is to Allah, the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the Magnificent Throne" (La ilaha illallahul Halimul Karim, Subhan-Allahi Rabbil-A'rshil-A'dhim, Subhan-Allahi Rabbil-samawatis-sab'i wa Rabbil-A'rshil-Adhim) - Wak'i said with each wording "La ilaha illallahu" is to be included
In Al-Mustadrak (#1874 - 1/589):
(La ilaha illallahul Halimul Karim, subhanahu wa-ta'ala, tabarakal-lahu Rab-bul Arshil Adhim, wal-hamdulil-lahi Rabbil A'lamin) | A'bdullah ibn Jafar blew this on the afflicted
And in (#1873):
([...] subhanallah, wa tabarakal-lahu ...)
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "When any one of you goes to sleep, the devil ties three knots at the back of his neck, sealing every knot with: 'You have a long night, so sleep.' So if one awakes and mentions Allah, a knot will be loosened; if he performs ablution two knots are loosened; and if he prays, (all) knots will be loosened - and in the morning he will be active and in good spirits. Otherwise, he will be in bad spirits and feeling lethargic in the morning."
When you awake, as narrated in At-Tirmidhi (3401) and Abu I'sa classed it Hasan, say:
"All praise is due to Allah, Who healed me in my body, and returned to me my soul, and permitted me to remember Him. (Alhamdu lillahil-ladhi a'fani fi jasadi wa rad-da a'layya ruhi wa a-dhina li bi-dhikrih)"
"To pray when in distress" or (regulary) doing the "Duha prayer": read here
Affairs of Dunya
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "Every important speech that does not begin with the Dhikr (remembrance of Allah) is imperfect!"
A'mal al-Yawm wal-Laylah (497); and in Al-Kubra lil-Subki (1/16) with the phrase: "Every important matter that does not open with Dhikrillah is incomplete or cut off!" It is explained in this Journal: 'All the narrators are trustworthy according to Ahmad, except Qurrah; he is Saduq Manakir (truthful, yet denounced) as Ibn Hajar states [and Zuhri is either trustworthy or truthful].'
There are many weak narrations about this matter with plenty of variety in text to which Ibn Baz said in his Majm'u Fatawa (25/135): '... it is more likely to be Hasan li Ghayrihi.'
And this approach applies since it is existing in the Quran (e.g.: Surah An-Naml 30) as well as in the Sunnah (e.g.: The Prophet ﷺ opened his letter to Heraclius with the Basmalah - Al-Bukhari (7) or about Khutbat al-Hajah); and Allah knows best.
Abu Idris Al-Khawlani said: 'While the Prophet ﷺ and his companions were walking, his sandal strap cut off, (so) he said: "We belong to Allah and to Him shall we return" (Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un) - 'They said: Or is this a calamity?' He said: "Yes, everything that displeases the believer is a calamity."
Ibn as-Sunni (353) Ibn Hajar said in Al-Futuhat (4/28): "And the men from this Isnad are authentic narrators"; and Shaykh Hilal added in his Tahqiq of Ibn as-Sunni (1/407) that this Hadith is Mursal Sahih
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "If any Muslim, who suffers some calamity, utters what Allah has commanded him: We belong to Allah and to Him shall we return!¹ O Allah, reward me for my affliction and give me something better than it in exchange for it (Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un - Allahum-majurni fi musibati wa akhlif-li khayran minha) - Allah will give him something better than it in exchange."
Muslim (918a) and in (b): "Allah will give him a reward for (the) affliction..."
In Abu Dawud (3119):
¹ - "O Allah, I expect reward from Thee from this affliction, so give me reward for it, and give me a better compensation" (Allahumma i'ndaka ah-tasibu musibati fa-a-jirni fiha wa abdil li khayran minha)
Slightly different in At-Tirmidhi (3511):
¹ - (... fa-jurni fiha wa abdil-ni minha khayr)
And, in Ibn Majah (1598):
¹ - "O Allah, with You I seek reward for my calamity, so reward me for it and compensate me" (Allahumma i'ndaka ah-tasabtu musibati, fajurni fiha, wa u'dni minha)
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Whoever wishes that Allah would respond to him during hardship and grief, then let him supplicate plentifully when at ease."
Ad-Du'a (45), Al-Mustadrak (1/729) which Al-Hakim classed Sahih, graded Hasan in Sahih al-Jam'i (6290) and explained in As-Sahihah (2/140-1 - #593)
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "No Muslim makes supplication - unless it involves sin or cuting off his kinship - but that he is given one of three things:
Either his supplication is answered quickly, or it is stored up for him in the Akhira, or an evil equal (e.g.: calamity) to it is averted from him." It was said: 'Then many supplications will be made (by us).' He replied: "Allah has even more to give."
Adab al-Mufrad (710) graded Sahih by Shaykh Albani
It is narrated in Musnad Ahmad (7509), when the third of the night is left, Allah descends to the lowest heaven, and says:
"Who is he who calls upon me, so that I may respond? Who will ask forgiveness of me, so that I may forgive? Who is there that will ask Me for provision, so that I might grant him provision? Who is there that will ask Me to relieve harm, so that I might relieve him of it; until the (true) dawn breaks?"
In Musnad Ahmad (7982), graded Sahih in As-Sahihah (2/501-2 - #844), the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
"Do you wish to strive in supplication? Say: O Allah, help me to be grateful to You, to remember You, and to worship You in the best manner" (Allahumma a'inni ala shukrika wa dhikrika wa husni i'badatik)
And, in Ibn as-Sunni (355) it is narrated from A'isha, which was classed Mawquf Hasan in Ad-Da'ifah (3/540-2 - #1363), that she said:
'Ask Allah for everything to the fullest extent, (because) if Allah does not facilitate it [what you want], it will not be made easy!'
In At-Tirmidhi (2969, 3372), which Abu I'sa classed both Hasan Sahih, that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
"The supplication is worship." Then, he recited: And Your Lord said: Call upon me, I will respond to you. Verily, those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell humiliated." - [Surah Ghafir 60]
And in Adab al-Mufrad (658), classed Hasan and explained in As-Sahihah (6/323-6 - #2654), it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
"Allah is angry with someone who does not ask of Him."
The narrator Abu Salih al-Khuzi was weakened by Yahya bin Ma'in, while Abu Zur'a ar-Razi said: 'There is nothing wrong with it', in Jarh wat-Ta'dil (9/393 - #1857). Ibn Kathir said in his Tafsir (7/140): 'This is a fine chain of narrators.'
The supplication of the oppressed is answered here
Whenever a matter would distress him, the Prophet (ﷺ) would say: "O Ever-Living, O Self-Sustaining and All-Sustaining, in Your Mercy do I seek relief." (Ya Hayyu, ya Qayyum, bi-rahmatika astaghrith)
Al-Mustadrak (1/589), graded Sahih by Al-Hakim, and Imam Dhahabi agreed; Shaykh Albani mentioned this narration in As-Sahihah (7/556 - #3182), graded it Hasan in Sahih al-Jam'i (4777, 4791)
The Prophet (ﷺ) commanded us to say, when in the state of fear: "I seek refuge in the Perfect words of Allah from His wrath and from His punishment, and from the evil of His servants and from the temptations of the Shayatin, and from their presence." (A'udhu bikalimatil-lahit-tammati min ghadabihi wa min i'qabihi wa min sharri i'badihi, wa min hamazatish-shayatin, wa an yahdurun)
Al-Mustadrak (1/733), which Al-Hakim classed with a Sahih Isnad; in Ibn as-Sunni (638), referring to loneliness (before going to sleep) - and in Al-Muwatta (51/9), referring to a nightmare - and in At-Tirmidhi (3528) it adds: "For verily, they [Shayatin] shall not harm him"; moreover, in Sunan al-Kubra (10533) it starts with (Bismillah, a'udhu...); also narrated in Abu Dawud (3893) in a slightly shorter version, graded Hasan (without the addition from A'bdullah ibn A'mr) by Shaykh Albani
[Surah Al-Mu'minun 97-98]
It is narrated in Ibn as-Sunni (340), which Ibn Hajar classed its chain as 'la basa bih' in Tahdhib at-Tahdhib (6/215-6 - #436), that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
"Whoever is afflicted with anxiety or grief, let him say: Oh Allah, I am your servant, and the son of your servant as well as the son of your maidservant who are in Your possession. My forelock is in Your hand, Your command concerning me prevails, and Your decision concerning me is fair. I call upon You by every one of the beautiful names with which You have described Yourself, or which You have revealed - (means in the book) -
or You have taught to any of Your creatures, or which You have chosen to keep in the knowledge of the Unseen with You; to make the Quran the spring of my heart, the light of my sight, the healer of my chest, the expeller of my sadness, and the removal of my anxiety." (Allahumma inni a'bduk, wabnu a'bdik, wabnu amatika fi qabdatik, nasiyati biyadik, madin fiyya hukmuk, a'dlun fiyya qada-uk, asaluka bi-kul-lismin huwa lak(a) sam-mayta bihi nafsak, au anzaltahu au a'l-lamtahu a-hadan min khalqik, au asta-tharta bihi fi i'lmil ghaybi i'ndak, an taj-a'lal Qurana rabi'a qalbi, wa-nura basari, wa shifa-a sadri, wa jala-a huzni, wa dhahaba ham-mi) He said [then]: "Never did a servant say them except that Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, would replace his place of sorrow with joy!" They said: 'O Messenger of Allah, should we not teach them?' He said: "Yes, teach them."
'[Anas] used to serve Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) whenever he stayed somewhere. I used to hear him saying: "O Allah, I seek refuge with you (Allah) from (worries) care and grief, from incapacity and laziness, from miserliness and cowardice, from being heavily in debt and from being overpowered by other men." (Allahumma inni a'udhu bika minal hammi wal hazan, wal a'jzi wal kasal, wal bukhl, wal jubn, wa dala-i'd-dayn, wa ghalabatir-rijal)
Al-Bukhari (6363, 6367)
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "O Allah, I seek refuge in You from miserliness and cowardice, and I seek refuge in you from a bad age, and I seek refuge in you from the trials of the chest, and I seek refuge in You from the torment of the grave." (Allahumma inni a'udhu bika minal jubn, wal bukhl, wa a'udhu bika min su-il u'mur, wa a'udhu bika min fitnatis-sadr, wa a'udhu bika min a'dhabil qabr)
Ibn Hibban (1024) as well as Al-Mawarid (2445), and Shaykh Albani graded it Sahih li Ghayrihi in Taliqat al-Hasan
Anas reported that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) visited a person from amongst the Muslims in order to inquire (about his health) who had grown feeble like the chicken. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: "Did you supplicate for anything or beg of Him about that?" He said: 'Yes, I used to utter (these words): Impose punishment upon me earlier in this world, what Thou art going to impose upon me in the Hereafter.' Thereupon [He] (ﷺ) said: "Subhanallah, you have neither the power nor forbearance to take upon yourself (the burden of His Punishment). Why did you not say this: O Allah, grant us good in the world and good in the Hereafter, and save us from the torment of Fire." (Allahumma atina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil akhirati hasanatan wa qina a'dhaban-nar) 'He supplicated to Allah for him, and He cured him.'
[...] two persons abused each other in the presence of Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) and the eyes of one of them became red as embers and the veins of his neck were swollen. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: "I know of a wording, if he were to utter that, his fit of rage (would be no more and that wording is): I seek refuge with Allah from Satan, the accursed." (A'udhu billahi minash-shaytanir-Rajim) The person said: 'Do you find any madness in me?' Ibn al-A'la' said: 'Do you see it?'
(In the case of Waswas - Doubts) First, seek refuge from Allah (and there are various versions) and then give up this thought (by ignoring it completely and not engaging at all), narrated in Al-Bukhari (3276) - then say: "I affirm my faith in Allah (and in His Prophet)" (Amantu billahi wa rusulih), narrated in Muslim (134a-d) - then recite Surah Hadid 3 as it is narrated in Abu Dawud (5110) and Shaykh Albani graded its Isnad Hasan
(About the Evil Eye - Al-A'yn) The Prophet (ﷺ) used to seek Refuge with Allah for Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn and said: "Your forefather (Ibrahim) used to seek Refuge with Allah for Isma'il and Ishaq by reciting the following: O Allah, I seek Refuge with Your Perfect Words from every devil and from poisonous pests and from every evil, harmful, envious eye." (A'udhu bikalimatil-lahit-tammah, min kulli shaytanin wa hammah, wa min kulli a'ynin lammah)
Al-Bukhari (3371); and in Muslim (2188):
"The influence of an evil eye is a fact; if anything would precede the destiny it would be the influence of an evil eye..."
In Kashf al-Astar (3052), which Ibn Hajar graded Hasan in Fath al-Bari (10/204), it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
"Most of those who die among my Ummah is because of the will and decree of Allah, and then because of the evil eye" [which also encompasses Allah's Qadr]
And, in Ibn as-Sunni (205), classed Sahih in As-Sahihah (6/148-150 - #2572), it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
"Whoever among you sees something in himself or in his possessions or in his brother that he likes, let him pray for blessing for it because the evil eye is real" - for example, by saying (Allahumma barik - O Allah, bless it)
Here you can read about the Du'a to remove pain by putting your hand on the particular place
Surah Al-Qamar 10: "So, he (Nuh) invoked his Lord: Indeed, I am overpowered, so help." (An-ni magh-lubun fantasir); Surah Al-Isra 80: "My Lord, cause me to enter a sound entrance and to exit a sound exit and grant me from Yourself a supporting authority." (Rabbi ad-khilni mud-khala sid-qin wa-akhriji mukhraja sid-qin, wa ja'al-li milladunka sultanan-nasira)