Here are following narrations that are related to this topic:
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "Shall I not mention to you some words which, if distress or grief befalls any of you and he offers this Du'a, he is relieved of it? [...] It is the Du'a of Dhul-Nun: There is no god but You, Glory be to You, for I was one of the wrongdoers!" (La ilaha illa anta Subhanak(a), Inni kuntu minadh-dhalimin) Narrated in Al-Mustadrak (1/585) and Shaykh Albani graded it Sahih in Sahih al-Jam'i (2605)
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "May I not teach you phrases which you utter in distress? (These are:) "Allah, Allah is my Lord, I do not associate anything as partner with Him!" (Allah, Allahu Rabbi la u-shriku bihi shay-a(n)) Narrated in Abu Dawud (1525) and Shakyh Albani graded it Hasan in Sahih al-Jam'i (2623)
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Whoever is afflicted by anxiety, grief, illness, or hardship and he says: Allah is my Lord without partner (Allahu Rabbi la sharika lah), it will be removed from him." Narrated in Mu'jam al-Kabir (396) and Shaykh Albani graded it Hasan in Sahih al-Jam'i (6040)
The Prophet (ﷺ) once came [...] in a state of fear and said: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah!" (La ilaha illallah) Al-Bukhari (3346)
Ibn A'bbas said: 'Allah is Sufficient for us and He Is the Best Disposer of affairs', was said by Ibrahim when he was thrown into the fire; and it was said by Muhammad when they (i.e. hypocrites) said: "A great army is gathering against you, therefore, fear them, but it only increased their faith and they said: Allah is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer (of affairs, for us)" (Hasbiyallahu wa ni'mal Wakil) Al-Bukhari (4563/4); and in At-Tirmidhi (2431), which Abu I'sa classed Hasan to which Shaykh Albani said: 'It means Hasan li Ghayrihi', and he classed it Sahih in As-Sahihah (3/66-8 - #1079), that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "How can I be comfortable when the one with the horn is holding it to his lip, his ears listening for when he will be ordered to blow, so he can blow?" 'It was as if that was very hard upon the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ), so he said to them': "Say: Allah is sufficent for us and what a good protector He is, and upon Allah we rely" (Hasbiyallahu wa ni'mal Wakil, A'la-l-lahi tawak-kalna) - [Surah Al-Imran 173]
When a matter becomes difficult, the Prophet (ﷺ) taught us to say: "O Allah, there is nothing made easy except what you make easy, and You make (the state of) difficulty convenient, if You wish." (Allahumma la sahla illa ma ja-a'l-tahu sahla, wa anta taj-a'lul hadh-na idha shi-ta sahla) Narrated in Ibn Hibban (974) and Ibn Hajar classified it as Sahih which is mentioned in Al-Futuhat (4/25)
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "A strong believer is better and is more lovable to Allah than a weak believer, and there is good in everyone, (but) cherish that which gives you benefit (in the Hereafter) and seek help from Allah and do not lose heart, and if anything (in the form of trouble) comes to you, don't say: If I had not done that, it would not have happened so and so, but say: Allah did that what He had ordained to do (Qadarullah wa ma sha-a fa'al) - and your 'if' opens the (gate) for the Satan." Muslim (2664); and in Ibn as-Sunni (378), which Shaykh Albani graded Sahih in Sahih al-Jam'i (4727), it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ), when saw something he liked, he would say: "Praise is to Allah by Whose grace good deeds are completed" (Al-hamdu lillahil-ladhi bi ni'matihi tatimmus-salihat) and if he saw something that he disliked, he would say: "Praise is to Allah in all circumstances" (Al-hamdu lillahi a'la kulli hal); in At-Tirmidhi (2151), which was graded Hasan by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (11/184) that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "From (the signs of) the son of Adam's prosperity, is his satisfaction with what Allah decreed for him, and from the son of Adam's misery is his avoidance to request guidance from Allah, and from the son of Adam's misery is his anger with what Allah decreed for him"; and in Al-Mustadrak (1/699), which Al-Hakim graded Sahih, is it narrated: "From the happiness of the son of Adam is to seek Istikharah (guidance) from Allah, and from the misery of the son of Adam is to forsake Allah's Istikharah"; (Concerning somebody's Du'a) In Musnad Ahmad (11133), which was graded Hasan Sahih by Shaykh Albani in Sahihut-Targhib (2/278), that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "No Muslim supplicates with a Du'a that does not involve sin or severing ties of kinship, except that Allah will give him one of three things for it: Either He will speed up his supplication for him (realise it in this world), or He will store it for him in the Hereafter, or He will divert from him a similar evil."
Allah's Prophet (ﷺ) used to supplicate during the time of trouble (in these words): "There is no god but Allah, the Great, the Tolerant, there is no god but Allah, the Lord of the Magnificent Throne There is no god but Allah, the Lord of the Heaven and the earth, the Lord of the Edifying Throne" (La ilaha illallahul Adhimul Halim, La ilaha illallahu Rabbul Arshil Adhim, La ilaha illallahu Rabbus-samawati wa Rabbul ard, wa Rabbul Arshil Karim) Muslim (2730) and in Adab al-Mufrad (702), which was graded Sahih by Shaykh Albani, it was narrated with the addition: ... O Allah, avert its evil (... Allahum-masrif sharruh); concerning the first narration mentioned in this segment, in At-Tirmidhi (3435), which Abu I'sa graded Hasan Sahih, it is narrated, instead of (... Adhimul Halim ...), we have "... the Forbearing, the Wise ..." (... A'liy-yul Halim ...); narrated in Ibn Majah (3883): "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, the Forbearing, the Most Generous; glory is to Allah the Lord of the Mighty Throne; glory is to Allah, the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the Magnificent Throne" (La ilaha illallahul Halimul Karim, Subhan-Allahi Rabbil-A'rshil-A'dhim, Subhan-Allahi Rabbil-samawatis-sab'i wa Rabbil-A'rshil-Adhim) - Wak'i said with each wording "La ilaha illallahu" is to be included; and in Sunan al-Kubra (10390-2): (La ilaha illallahul Karimul Halim, subhanah, tabarakal-lahu Rab-bul Arshil Adhim, Alhamdulil-lahi Rabbil A'lamin) A'bdullah ibn Jafar blew this on the afflicted; in Musnad Ahmad (726) and others
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "When any one of you goes to sleep, the devil ties three knots at the back of his neck, sealing every knot with: 'You have a long night, so sleep.' So if one awakes and mentions Allah, a knot will be loosened. if he performs ablution two knots are loosened; and if he prays (all) knots will be loosened, and in the morning he will be active and in good spirits. Otherwise, he will be in bad spirits and feeling lethargic in the morning." Muslim (776) | When you awake, as narrated in At-Tirmidhi (3401) and Abu I'sa said: 'Hasan', to say: "All praise is due to Allah, Who healed me in my body, and returned to me my soul, and permitted me to remember Him. (Alhamdulillahil-ladhi a'fani fi jasadi wa rad-da a'layya ruhi wa a-dhina li bi-zikrih)"
Hudhayfah said: "When anything distressed the Prophet (ﷺ), he prayed." Narrated in Abu Dawud (1319) and Shaykh Albani classed it Hasan in Sahih Abu Dawud (1192), as well as Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (3/172) in which he also classed the subsequent Hadith as Hasan that is narrated in Shu'ab al-Iman (9233) pertaining to the following Ayat (at the end) with the incident of Ibn A'bbas that news was brought to him of his brother's death whilst he was travelling. 'He said: "Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un" (Truly, to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return)" [Al-Baqarah 2:156]. Then he swerved from the road and made his camel kneel, then he prayed two Rak'at in which he made the sitting lengthy. Then he got up and walked towards his camel, saying (by reciting the Quran): "And seek help in patience and As-Salat (the prayer) and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashiun (the true believers in Allah)"' [Al-Baqarah 2:45] / Tafsir ibn Kathir (1/156); and in Abu Dawud (4985/6), which Shaykh Albani classed Sahih in Irwa ul-Ghalil (223), it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "... so that I pray and get comfort." [...] "Get up, Bilal, and give us comfort in prayer."
The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "If any Muslim, who suffers some calamity, utters what Allah has commanded him: We belong to Allah and to Him shall we return!¹ O Allah, reward me for my affliction and give me something better than it in exchange for it (Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji'un - Allahum-majurni fi musibati wa akhlif-li khayran minha) - Allah will give him something better than it in exchange." Muslim (918a) and in (918b): "Allah will give him reward for (the) affliction..."; in Abu Dawud (3119): ¹ - "O Allah, I expect reward from Thee from this affliction, so give me reward for it, and give me a better compensation" (Allahumma i'ndaka ah-tasibu musibati fa-a-jirni fiha wa abdil li khayran minha); slightly different in At-Tirmidhi (3511): ¹ - (... fa-jurni fiha wa abdil-ni minha khayr); and in Ibn Majah (1598): ¹ - "O Allah, with You I seek reward for my calamity, so reward me for it and compensate me" (Allahumma indaka ahtasabtu musibati, fajurni fiha, wa u'dni minha)
Jabir ibn A'bdullah said: 'The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) made supplication in this mosque, the Mosque of Victory (Masjid Al-Fath), on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, and it was answered for him between the two prayers [Dhuhr and A'sr] on Wednesday.' [Further], Jabir said: Whenever anything severe and serious happened to me and I singled out that time and made supplication to Allah concerning it between the two prayers on Wednesday, I found the answer.' Narrated in Adab al-Mufrad (704), Musnad Ahmad (14563), and others, which Shaykh Albani classed Hasan in Sahih at-Targhib (1185), Al-Haythami said in Majm'a az-Zawa'id (4/13): 'Narrated by Ahmad, and Al-Bazzar, and the men of Ahmad are trustworthy', to which also Al-Mundhiri added in At-Targhib (2/143): 'And the chain of transmission of Ahmad is Jayyid'; Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said in Aqtid'a as-Sirat al-Mustaqim (2/344): 'The chain of narrators of this Hadith includes Kathir ibn Zayd, who was criticized by the scholars; Ibn Ma'in sometimes authenticated him and at some other times classified him as weak. Some of our companions [scholars of our Madhhab] act according to this narration, as well as some other scholars.'
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Whoever wishes that Allah would respond to him during hardship and grief, then let him supplicate plentifully when at ease." Narrated in Ad-Du'a (45), Al-Mustadrak (1/729) which Al-Hakim classed Sahih, and by others, that was graded Hasan li Ghayrihi by Shaykh Albani in Sahih at-Targhib (1628), Hasan in Sahih al-Jam'i (6290) and explained in As-Sahihah (2/140-1 - #593); and it is narrated in At-Tirmidhi (3372), which Abu I'sa classed Hasan Sahih, that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "The supplication is worship." Then, he recited: And Your Lord said: Call upon me, I will respond to you. Verily, those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell humiliated." - [Surah Ghafir 60] - And in Adab al-Mufrad (658), which Shaykh Albani classed Hasan and explained in As-Sahihah (6/323-6 - #2654), it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "Allah is angry with someone who does not ask of Him." The narrator Abu Salih al-Khuzi was weakened by Yahya bin Ma'in, while Abu Zur'a ar-Razi said: 'There is nothing wrong with it', in Jarh wa'l Ta'dil (9/393). Ibn Kathir said in his Tafsir (7/140): 'This is a fine chain of narrators.'
Whenever a matter would distress him, the Prophet (ﷺ) would say: "O Ever-Living, O Self-Sustaining and All-Sustaining, in Your Mercy do I seek relief." (Ya Hayyu, ya Qayyum, bi-rahmatika astaghrith) Narrated in Al-Hakim (1/589), which he graded Sahih and Imam Dhahabi agreed; and Shaykh Albani mentioned this narration in As-Sahihah (7/556 - #3182), graded it Hasan in Sahih al-Jam'i (4777, 4791); furthermore it is narrated in Musnad Ahmad (20430), which was graded Hasan by Shaykh Albani in Sahih al-Jam'i (3388), that if a matter distressed you, to supplicate with: "O Allah, thy mercy is what I hope for. Do not abandon me to myself for an instant, but put all my affairs in good order for me. There is no god but Thou." (Allahumma rahmataka arju fala takilni ila nafsi tarfata a'yn, (wa) aslih li sha-ni kullah, La ilaha illa ant)
The Prophet (ﷺ) commanded us to say, when in the state of fear: "I seek refuge in the Perfect words of Allah from His wrath and from His punishment, and from the evil of His servants and from the temptations of the Shayatin, and from their presence." (A'udhu bikalimatil-lahit-tammati min ghadabihi wa min i'qabihi wa min sharri i'badihi, wa min hamazatish-shayatin, wa an yahdurun) Narrated in Al-Mustadrak (1/733) which Al-Hakim classed with a Sahih Isnad, and in Al-Muwatta (51/9), specifically referring to a nightmare, and in Sunan al-Kubra (10533), it starts with (Bismillah, a'udhu...); and Shaykh Albani graded these narrations Hasan li Ghayrihi in Sahihut-Targhib (2/262); also narrated in Abu Dawud (3893), with a slightly different version; [Surah Al-Mu'minun 97-98]
'[Anas] used to serve Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) whenever he stayed somewhere. I used to hear him saying: "O Allah, I seek refuge with you (Allah) from (worries) care and grief, from incapacity and laziness, from miserliness and cowardice, from being heavily in debt and from being overpowered by other men." (Allahumma inni a'udhu bika minal hammi wal hazan, wal a'jzi wal kasal, wal bukhl, wal jubn, wa dala-i'd-dayn, wa ghalabatir-rijal) Al-Bukhari (6363, 6367)
(In the case of Waswas - Doubts) First, seek refuge from Allah (and there are various versions) and then give up this thought (by ignoring it completely and not engaging at all), narrated in Al-Bukhari (3276) - then say: "I affirm my faith in Allah (and in His Prophet)" (Amantu billahi wa rusulih), narrated in Muslim (134a-d) - then recite Surah Hadid 3 as it is narrated in Abu Dawud (5110) and Shaykh Albani graded its Isnad Hasan
(About the Evil Eye - Al-A'yn) The Prophet (ﷺ) used to seek Refuge with Allah for Al-Hasan and Al-Husain and said: "Your forefather (i.e. Ibrahim) used to seek Refuge with Allah for Isma'il and Ishaq by reciting the following: O Allah, I seek Refuge with Your Perfect Words from every devil and from poisonous pests and from every evil, harmful, envious eye." (A'udhu bikalimatil-lahit-tammah, min kulli shaytanin wa hammah, wa min kulli a'ynin lammah) Al-Bukhari (3371); and he (ﷺ) said: "The influence of an evil eye is a fact; if anything would precede the destiny it would be the influence of an evil eye..." Muslim (2188); and it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "Most of those who die among my Ummah is because of the will and decree of Allah, and then because of the evil eye." Kashf al-Astar (3052) and Ibn Hajar graded it Hasan in Fath al-Bari (10/204); and in Ibn as-Sunni (205), which Shaykh Albani classed Sahih in As-Sahihah (6/148-150 - #2572), it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "Whoever among you sees something in himself or in his possessions or in his brother that he likes, let him pray for blessing for it because the evil eye is real" - for example, by saying (Allahumma barik a'layhi - O Allah, bless it for him)
'If you had a debt upon you similar to the mountain of Sir, Allah would fulfill it for you.' He (ﷺ) said: "O Allah, suffice me with Your lawful against Your prohibited, and make me independent of all those besides You." Narrated in Al-Mustadrak (1/721), which Al-Hakim classed Sahih, and Ibn Hajar classed it Hasan in Nata'ij al-Afkar (4/124)
Surah Al-Qamar 10: "So, he (Nuh) invoked his Lord: Indeed, I am overpowered, so help." (An-ni magh-lubun fantasir); Surah Al-Isra 80: "My Lord, cause me to enter a sound entrance and to exit a sound exit and grant me from Yourself a supporting authority." (Rabbi ad-khilni mud-khala sid-qin wa-akhriji mukhraja sid-qin, wa ja'al-li milladunka sultanan-nasira)
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Whoever sees a person afflicted and says: All praise is due to Allah Who saved me from that which He has afflicted you with, and blessed me greatly over many of those whom He has created (Alhamdulilla-hil-ladhi a'fani mim-mab-talaka bih, wa fad-dalani a'la kathirin mim-man khalaqa tafdila), then he shall be saved from that affliction for as long as he lives." Narrated in Al-Awliyya (5/13 - 6/265) and others, to which Shaykh Albani made several statements regarding these narrations in his As-Sahihah (2/151-3 - #602) as well as in Ad-Da'ifah (13/295), where he commented about the issues that surround these narrations, and in Sahih al-Jam'i (6248) he graded it Hasan; further, it is narrated in Mu'jam as-Saghir (675) and in Kashf al-Astar (3118) that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "So, if he says [this], then he has indeed given sufficient gratitude (Shukr) for that blessing", and Shaykh Albani mentioned it in As-Sahihah (6/531-4 - #2737), which was graded Hasan in Sahih al-Jam'i (555). In Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi (9/275) it is explained: 'His statement 'if he sees a person of trials', (which has the) meaning (of) being trialed in his body, such as with having leprosy, or with being extremely short, or being extremely tall, or being blind, or being crippled, or the shape of his hand is distorted or its likes. (Similarly), or a religious related affliction similar to wrongdoing and oppression, and an innovation and disbelief, and other than it.' And in Majm'u fih Musanafat Ibn al-Bakhtari (158) it is narrated that the Prophet (ﷺ) would have said: "If one of you sees a calamity in his brother, let him praise Allah Almighty, and let him not hear it." Shaykh Albani graded this narration as Da'if in Ad-Da'ifah (6/36-7 - #2525). However, the scholars deem its meaning to be authentic. An-Nawawi said in his Kitab al-Adhkar: 'This Dhikr should be said in secret so that he can hear himself, and the one who is afflicted does not hear him, lest his heart would ache for that, unless his calamity is a sin' to reprehend somebody. And Allah knows best.
Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said: "Place your hand at the place where you feel pain in your body and say: 'In the name of Allah' (Bismillah) three times, and seven times 'I seek refuge with Allah and with His Power from the evil that I find and that I fear' (A'udhu bil-lahi wa qudratihi min sharri ma a-jidu wa u-hadhir) Muslim (2022); narrated in Ibn Majah (3522): "Put your right hand on it and say: In the Name of Allah, I seek refuge in the might and power of Allah from the evil of what I feel and what I fear (Bismillah, a'udhu bi-i'z-zatil-lahi wa qudratihi min sharri ma a-jidu wa u-hadhir) 7 times." U'thman bin Abul-A's Thaqafi said: 'I said that, and Allah healed me.' And in At-Tirmidhi (2080), which Abu I'sa classed Hasan Sahih, it is narrated: "Rub (or wipe) [the place] with your right hand 7 times and say: I seek refuge in Allah's might, power, and authority, from the evil of what I find (Bismillah, a'udhu bi-i'z-zatil-lahi wa qudratihi wa Sultanihi min sharri ma a-jid); and further in Al-Mustadrak (4/244), which Al-Hakim classed Sahih and Imam Dhahabi agreed upon, it is narrated to say firstly once: "In the Name of Allah, I seek refuge in Allah's might and power from the evil of this pain I feel" (Bismillah, a'udhu bi-i'z-zatil-lahi wa qudratihi min sharri ma a-jidu min waja'i hadha), then lift your hand and repeat that an odd number of times."
Important: Utter these A'diyah/Adhkar with full Yaqin (certainty) that Allah will help you while you know (exactly) the words which you speak (memorise translation, and think about them as well)!
Mus'ab bin S'ad narrated from his father that a man said: 'O Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), which of the people is tried most severely? He said: "The Prophets, then those nearest to them, then those nearest to them. A man is tried according to his religion; if he is firm in his religion, then his trials are more severe, and if he is frail in his religion, then he is tried according to the strength of his religion. The servant shall continue to be tried until he is left walking upon the earth without any sins." Narrated in At-Tirmidhi (2398) and Abu I'sa classed it Hasan Sahih