Is eating penguin meat halal or is it haram?
The default rule about food in Islam is that everything is halal except when there exists specific evidence that makes something haram. This is because of the general meaning of the verses such as:
هو الذي خلق لكم ما في الأرض جميعا
It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth.
قل لا أجد في ما أوحي إلي محرما على طاعم يطعمه إلا
Say, "I do not find within that which was revealed to me [anything] forbidden to one who would eat it except ...
وما لكم ألا تأكلوا مما ذكر اسم الله عليه وقد فصل لكم ما حرم عليكم
And why should you not eat of that upon which the name of Allah has been mentioned while He has explained in detail to you what He has forbidden you
There is no evidence which excludes penguins from these texts. They are not named in the Quran and Ahadith, they have nothing in common to the haram animals, they do not hunt with their talons etc. If this is established then they should fall into the default rule and be considered halal.
وأما البطريق فلم نجد له ذكرا فيما وقفنا عليه من كتب الفقه القديمة والظاهر أنه لفظ عجمي معرب
وقد عرفنا أنه طائر برمائي، وأنه غير مفترس، وإذا تقرر ذلك فالأصل في أي حيوان أنه حلال ما لم يرد دليل يمنع من أكله
وعليه, فلا نرى حرجا في أكل لحم البطريق
In Shiite jurisprudence, the general scholars do not consider it permissible to eat penguins. Although penguins are considered birds, they do not have halal meat conditions and are not allowed to eat them. Birds: Halal birds have two signs of meat, and other than that, all types of birds are haram meat. 1- Birds that fly more wings during flight and open their wings less and keep them straight are halal meat; But birds that open their wings more and keep them straight and fly less and fly less (move their wings less) are forbidden to eat meat. 2. Birds that have stratifiers or gills or thorns on the back of the foot are meat solvents. (Note: Birds that are like hawks, eagles, and hawks that have claws are forbidden to eat meat.)