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Quran often refers to the previous books such as Torah, Zaboor, and Injeel. Those books do contain genealogies that authenticate prophets that were sent by God. Muslims do believe that Muhammad was the prophet sent by the same God who sent the prophets that brought the previous scriptures. Muslims also believe that Muhammad was a descendent of Ishmael the first son of Abraham.

My question is on what bases Muslims believe that Muhammad is a descendent of Ishmael? Where is the genealogy record that confirms Muhammad's place among Ishmael's descendants?

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The only authentic genealogy recounting the names is until the Prophet's ancestor Fihr. See here.

People have agreed that Fihr was descended from a person named Adnan, but an exact list of names is a matter of debate. Then, people have agreed that Adnan was desended from Ismail (AS), but the exact list of names is in even more debate. Since neither the Quran nor the Sunnah contains a recounting of the ancestry, it is hard to get something very authentic. Refer to the Sealed Nectar and its chapter on ancestry for the claimed versions.

We don't believe the Prophet (SAW) was a descendant of Ismail (AS) particularly due to some ancestry record. We believe it because he was a prophet from God and he told us so. And Allah told us so in the Quran:

And [mention] when Abraham was raising the foundations of the House and [with him] Ishmael, [saying], "Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed You are the Hearing, the Knowing.

Our Lord, and make us Muslims [in submission] to You and from our descendants a Muslim nation [in submission] to You. And show us our rites and accept our repentance. Indeed, You are the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.

Our Lord, and send among them a messenger from themselves who will recite to them Your verses and teach them the Book and wisdom and purify them. Indeed, You are the Exalted in Might, the Wise." (2:127-129)

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The descendence of Muahmmad (p.b.u.h.) from Ishmail (a.s.) is only indirectly related, as the Arabian people is said tobe descendants of him in the Tora that also lists a front-end genealogy. There are more than 2000 years between Ishmail and Muhammad, so it is not astonishing that there is no full genalogy; rather, it is a sign on honesty that no full ancestry record has been fabricated.

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