How do we know that the quran is from god, and, before you tell me something like all the scientific accuracy of it, my real question is, how do we know it is from god, and not another being, that, is able to know all the stuff the quran says? How do we know the hadith where the prophet says stuff, he got it from Allah?
The Quran is a miracle, and the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) as well brought many miracles with him.
The Quran is a miracle for plenty of reasons including: prophecies, literary perfection, inability of people to make something to challenge it even after being challenged to do so, etc.
The Prophet (SAW) showed people the miracle of the splitting moon among other miracles. How do you know it actually happened? It was reported by many, many people in mass-transmission. If a person doubts something that is this widely attested, he may as well deny that his parents are his parents.
If you ask: What if the Quran was sent by a being other than God that knows how to make the Quran and also is able to do these miracles?
Answer: At that point, what makes this being not God Himself? Who else has the power to control reality and know the future except God Himself?
Another response: Go ahead and do these miracles and write something like the Quran yourself with the help of this being if you claim there is one like him. This is what the Quran challenged. If you cannot, why would this being help a person who says he does not exist (Muhammad SAW who has said there is only one God and denied any other power) while not help someone who does believe in the possibility of him?
At this point, a person is holding on to meaningless doubts for the sake of holding on to them.
If a person continues to be in that much doubt, there should be no issue in him accepting that he will go to Hell and then he can doubt whether Hell exists or not while burning there.
The disbelievers of the Prophet's time used to put forth this same doubt, but they used the term "magic." But, how can they accuse the Prophet of magic when they know he never learned magic, they know their greatest magicians cannot match him, and they know their greatest fortune-tellers cannot make as true prophecies as he did? It is meaningless objection based only on assumptions.
Which is why the angels make fun of those being thrown in Hell by saying:
"This is the Fire which you used to deny. Or is this [also] magic, or do you not see?
"[Enter to] burn therein; then be patient or impatient - it is all the same for you. You are only being recompensed [for] what you used to do." (52:14-16)
If they can deny such a clear prophecy, they can be comforted by the fact that they can likewise deny the fire while they are in it.
On religion, Islam and hints for the qur'an being from Allah
Generally one must say religion is a matter of faith and believe. Both of these are usually far from any logic and evidentiary value.
However in Islam the qur'an itself addresses both the heart (which believes) and the mind (which reflects and uses logic) fairly good and often by inviting us to reflect about its words and statements.
There are many verses ending by:
Then will you not reason?
And two verses beginning with:
Then do they not reflect upon the Qur'an? ...
Further the qur'an includes some knowledge and information that none could have known at the time: It includes prophecies.
It includes wisdom and knowledge that needed centuries to be verified. And the qur'an always challenges doubters and enemies to find errors or come with something similar. Linguistically the qur'an has challenged the Arabs who at the time considered themselves to be the best poets, linguists and most eloquent orators with its specific unprecedented language or linguistic style. They even have chosen 7 poems which they fixed on the walls of the Ka'abah as a sign of their mastership. But the Arabs couldn't come with something equivalent and called it:
"And said, "This is not but magic imitated [from others]."(74:24)
And as they couldn't explain it and wanted to declare it as the speech of Muhammad () they called him a poet (which the qur'an and all his companions and even contemporary disbelievers denied) and a soothsayer. So in fact they got caught up in contradictions.
The qur'an also quotes different kinds of disbelief which seems to me hardly possible to cover by one person
Some scholarly evidences for the qur'an being from Allah
In the following I will quote some evidences for the qur'an being the word of Allah as quoted in some scholarly fatwas:
- The qur'an challenged both humans and jinn's to come with something alike (not even the whole book, but anything that is comparable) in several verses (see for example 2:23, 11:13, 17:88).
- A part of its challenge is that humans (and jinn) may commit errors and mistakes and the qur'an challenges them to find mistakes in it. (See for example in 4:82 and 41:41-42).
- Allah himself promised to preserve the qur'an, since more than 14 centuries the qur'an has been transmitted orally from generation to generation, any change or deviation would easily be found by Muslims, if anybody tried to corrupt the original revelation.
- Another miracle are the legislation, rulings, stories and beliefs which variety and depth can hardly be man made or inspired especially in the short time period of the revelation. Further the stories of ancient nations shows and gives additional information to what was revealed before.
- The prophecies and unknown things that the qur'an came with such as biological phenomena, geological phenomena which were not yet discovered at the time of its revelation. Allah the Almighty says:
We will show them Our signs in the horizons and within themselves until it becomes clear to them that it is the truth. But is it not sufficient concerning your Lord that He is, over all things, a Witness? (41:53)
- And among these is also the information about an ongoing far away war between the Persian and Roman (Byzantine) empires, where Allah informed about a victory that only happens after the death of Muhammad () (See 30:2-4).
- As many people even the contemporary disbelievers tried to say that the qur'an was authored by Muhammad () or Muhammad was inspired by others. The qur'an actually 14 centuries after Muhammad, still includes verses that reproach him and mentioned embarrassing stories (See for example 33:37, 33:53, 66:1, 80:1-3). Why would Muhammad keep these stories and rebukes if he was the author?
The Quran says: They say that he made it a lie. Say: If you are truthful, bring a surah like it, and call on whomever you can except God (Surat al-Toor, 33-34) Say, "If mankind and jinn come together to bring the like of this Qur'an, they will not bring it like it, though some of them support others." (Surat al-Hud: 13)
There are many books and articles in Islam that have dealt with this issue. They examine different aspects of the Qur'an and the circumstances of the Prophet of Islam and try to show you very logically whether the Qur'an is from God or not! Hundreds of pages of content can be written to prove it. The Qur'an has methodical miracles, expressive miracles, content miracles, and scientific miracles.
The subject of the Prophet's illiteracy and unwritten handwriting is historically certain, and even non-Muslim orientalists and historians have confirmed it. While the Qur'an was at the peak of eloquence and expressed wise words and unknown scientific points. Sometimes he announced the future. The Prophet was sent at a time when literature and poetry were very strong in the Arab world . The way the Qur'an is spoken is very different from what human beings have ever heard or said. No words can reach the foot of the Qur'an in the beauty of appearance and the sweetness of expression. What literary scholars interpret as eloquence and rhetoric is at the highest level in the Qur'an. The Qur'an has a special style that is unparalleled. Hence, Walid ibn Mughirah, one of the greatest writers of the pre-Islamic period, said of the Qur'an: "His speech has a special sweetness." But to neutralize the influence of the Qur'an, he said, "Say the Prophet is a sorcerer." According to research, the Holy Qur'an has raised issues about cosmology, biology, medicine, etc., which have become clearer with the development of experimental sciences: general gravity and the motion of the earth and the mating of plants and... For more information, please refer to the hundreds of volumes of books and articles that have been written about this.
One of my favourite questions, especially if a non-Muslim was asking it, but it's normal that you doubt the Qur'an, and that's because you didn't read much about the theology to know who is this Creator behind us, Allah:
ٱقْرَأْ بِٱسْمِ رَبِّكَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ
Read in the name of your Lord who created
Everyone will tell you what they know about God [and hence the Qur'an], some take the whole topic on pure faith, some others admire the literacy of the Qur'an [even non-Muslims], many awe at its miracles, dozens like its depth in story narration, millions like its majestic rhymes and confidence in speech, it is impossible that this is an ordinary Book.
If you want to know how the Qur'an came to being, then you should seek why God willed to reveal a Qur'an in the first place.
At a time around 2000 BCE, a monotheist man from Mesopotamia called Abraham made a covenant with God, it was as following:
۞ وَإِذِ ٱبْتَلَىٰٓ إِبْرَٰهِـۧمَ رَبُّهُۥ بِكَلِمَـٰتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّى جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِى ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِى ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
And [mention, O Muḥammad], when Abraham was tried by his Lord with words [i.e., commands] and he fulfilled them. [Allah] said, "Indeed, I will make you a leader for the people." [Abraham] said, "And of my descendants?" [Allah] said, "My covenant does not include the wrongdoers."
A similar pact exists in the Torah Genesis 12:2-3 and Genesis 17:1-7, which means Christians and Jews also believe in the same covenant like Muslims.
Abraham then brought up 2 sons, Ishmael [the grandfather of Makkah's Arabs], and Isaac [the grandfather of the Hebrews], and [as the Bible and Qur'an say] God made the covenant of Abraham starting with the Israelites, whom are the descendants of Prophet Jacob/Israel, the son of Isaac.
From the progeny of Jacob, many messengers were sent to the nation of Israel, including Moses, David, Solomon and Jesus. The Qur'an confirms this fact too:
وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلْحُكْمَ وَٱلنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَـٰهُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ وَفَضَّلْنَـٰهُمْ عَلَى ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ
And We did certainly give the Children of Israel the Scripture and judgement and prophethood, and We provided them with good things and preferred them over the worlds.
However, the Israelites betrayed God's covenant with Abraham, and committed crimes against Him from killing His messengers to distorting the Scripture to immediate disbelief, and even the Bible testifies on them as we read in Judges 2:11-15, Psalm 106:23-29, Ezekiel 33:23-29 and many more....
The final straw was Jesus [AS], not only the Jews disbelieved him, they even tried to push the Romans to kill him and threw accusations at his mother Mary. Hence, God cursed the Jews, and destroyed the Temple of Solomon 40 years later after the claimed crucifixion, and took them out of the Holy Lands.
+600 Years later, after Jesus disappeared from history, God took the covenant from Israel and gave it to the sons of Ishmael, the cousins of the Israelites:
Deuteronomy 18:18 I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brothers, like you [O Moses], and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.
- So the Jews believe that the covenant is endless with Isaac, and that Jesus was an imposter.
- And Christians also stand that the covenant is endless, but believe that Jesus was the Messiah mentioned in the Jewish Scripture.
- But Muslims believe that God shifted the covenant to Ishmael's sons after Israel.
Muhammad [PBUH] admitted he is a grandson of Ishmael: https://sunnah.com/muslim:2276
Did you understand what God planned from Abraham's covenant?
When Allah told Abraham His descendants shall be leaders on the earth, He was talking about our modern world where Abrahamic religions are dominating nations from East to West, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
A 4000 years old pact fulfilling in our age; is just one of many evidence that Muhammad didn't lie when he declared the Creator has sent him, a messenger to warn every human being before the Hour comes:
قُلْ إِنَّمَآ أَنَا۠ بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَىٰٓ إِلَىَّ أَنَّمَآ إِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ وَٰحِدٌ ۖ فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُوا۟ لِقَآءَ رَبِّهِۦ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَـٰلِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِۦٓ أَحَدًۢا
Say, "I am only a man like you, to whom has been revealed that your god is one God. So whoever would hope for the meeting with his Lord - let him do righteous work and not associate in the worship of his Lord anyone."