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I suppose there are multiple angles to this question:

  1. Can a sharia court from outside the country of residence be used?
  2. Can punishment be carried out in a foreign country (where execution is not permitted)
  3. Can punishment be carried out in a foreign country (where execution is permitted, eg the USA)
  4. Can a sharia court in the country of residence be used? (Are they allowed, even if not officially 'courts' in the host country)
  5. Can Muslims commit adultery with impunity in foreign countries if they live there and the host country is not Islamic and permits adultery?
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  • How exactly will a punishment be carried out if the Sharia does not rule there?
    – The Z
    Aug 19 at 16:14
  • 1
    @TheZ I think the "how" of it is irrelevant. For example, Salman Rushdie had to spend a lot of his life in hiding because some external court decided he should be killed. And of course, you have Jihadis who want to kill non Muslims, for no other reason than their religion
    – Frank
    Aug 19 at 16:15
3

Adultery is haram no matter where one lives.

The legal punishment however can only be enforced by the ruler of the Muslims or by someone who has been authorized by him. He is only responsible for enforcing it after he has been informed of the adultery by four witnesses or by a confession. Before enforcing it he is supposed to investigate the matter and make sure that the witnesses are reliable. He is to cross-examine their testimonies and to inquire about the act in order to ensure that it is one which fulfills the necessary criterion for the hadd punishment.

Typically he does not have the ability to carry this out in a non-muslim country. Non-muslims will impose their own Criminal law and will not permit outsiders to operate within their territory.

However there are some situations in which he could have the power to do so. This can be for example when the culprit returns to the Islamic state, or if the he or a competent authority is leading an incursion into the non-muslim state. In this case there is difference of opinion among the madhabs on whether the Hadd must be carried out:

  • According to the Hanafis the Hadd can not be carried out. Near them among the conditions for enforcing the Hadd is that the zina should have taken place within Islamic territory.
  • According to the Hanbalis the Hadd must be carried out but should be delayed till the time when the people return to the Islamic territory.
  • According to the Malikis and Shafi'is, the Hadd must be carried out, even within non-muslim territory.

References:

باب المسلم يزني في دار الحرب - قال أبو بكر: حرم الله الزنى في كتابه، فحيثما زنى الرجل فعليه الحد. وهذا قول مالك، والشافعي، وأبي ثور. وقال أصحاب الرأي- في الرجل المسلم إذا كان في دار الحرب بأمان، وزنى هنالك، ثم خرج-: لم يحد.قال أبو بكر: دار الحرب، ودار الإسلام واحد، من زنى فعليهالحد، على ظاهر قوله تعالى: {الزانية والزاني فاجلدوا كل واحد منهما مائة جلدة}.

al-Ishraaf , Ibn al-Mundhir

قال : ولا يقام الحد على مسلم في أرض العدو . وجملته أن من أتى حدا من الغزاة ، أو ما يوجب قصاصا ، في أرض الحرب ، لم يقم عليه حتى يقفل ، فيقام عليه حده . وبهذا قال الأوزاعي ، وإسحاق . وقال مالك ، والشافعي ، وأبو ثور ، وابن المنذر : يقام الحد في كل موضع ; لأن أمر الله تعالى بإقامته مطلق في كل مكان وزمان ، إلا أن الشافعي قال : إذا لم يكن أمير الجيش الإمام ، أو أمير إقليم ، فليس له إقامة الحد ، ويؤخر حتى يأتي الإمام ; لأن إقامة الحدود إليه ، وكذلك إن كان بالمسلمين حاجة إلى المحدود ، أو قوة به ، أو شغل عنه ، أخر . وقال أبو حنيفة : لا حد ولا قصاص في دار الحرب ، ولا إذا رجع

Al-Mughni Ibn Qudamah

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According to most traditional Sunni fiqh, the answer is usually 5 times No because answer 1 is a No.

Also according to Sharia law, punishment according to Sharia is to be executed by the institution of the country. If there is no such institution established in the country, judgement can be made but execution is prohibited.

Exceptions:

If the foreign country has empowered a Sharia court to judge over Muslim: In non-Muslim countries, this is occasionally the case for civil law such as marriage and inheritance but I don't know a non-Muslim country that attributes all judgement for Muslim to a Sharia institution. It is to mention that even many Muslim majority states do not accept Sharia courts in penalty law. So this is only a theoretical exception.

Many countries allow to judge a National of their country to be judged for deeds committed outside the country so that the person may be judged when returning to the country of origin - provided that judgment and penalties according to Sharia are established in this country.

Iranian judges have ordered to execute a Sharia penalty abroad; I don't know whether Shia fiqh can be defined by the authority in place.

In Sunni Islam. mostly self-nominate "judges" have decreed alike.

In both cases, execution of Sharia penalty in a state where this is not permissible is punished by this state as an infraction of law; in this case: as murder.

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  • 1
    So 5. With impunity?
    – Frank
    Aug 19 at 19:24
  • Say: without punishment by men. It is still a sin before God and He will do what He will do.
    – Jeschu
    Aug 19 at 19:42
1

Can a sharia court from outside the country of residence be used?

No

Can punishment be carried out in a foreign country (where execution is not permitted)

NO

Can punishment be carried out in a foreign country (where execution is permitted, eg the USA)

NO

Can a sharia court in the country of residence be used? (Are they allowed, even if not officially 'courts' in the host country)

NO

Can Muslims commit adultery with impunity in foreign countries if they live there and the host country is not Islamic and permits adultery?

Muslims cannot commit adultery even if the country allows.

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