So I want to know what Islam says about fathers hitting their daughters or adult daughters. Even when they lose temper because of their daughters, are they allowed to hit them or push them or throw them to the floor? Is it permissible for fathers to treat daughters of any age like this even if the daughters have done something wrong? What had our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Islam said about it?
Short answer: not permissible, never. Here is a quick list of some of the instances when the Prophet (PBUH) spoke about daughters: https://aboutislam.net/shariah/hadith/hadith-collections/5-hadiths-girl-children/
Don't forget that Surah Al-Kawthar (108) was revealed in response to people's comments about the Prophet's (PBUH) daughter. If that does not highlight the importance of daughters and care that should be accorded to them, I don't know what does.
We also know from Islam that we can and should always apologise for any wrongdoing and seek forgiveness, and change our behaviour if we have done something wrong. One important thing to think about is what is in Islam vs. what is in certain cultures. Hope this helps.