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Does the Qur’an and/or hadiths address beliefs such as atheism (statements like ‘there is no god’)?

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It is being mentioned in the Al-Quran.

Surah Al-Jathiyah, verse 24. (45.24): Reference and link here enter image description here

Translation: And they say: "There is no life other than our life in this world. We die and we live (alternately); and nothing destroys us except the passage of time". In fact they have no knowledge of it; they are mere conjecture.

Surah al-An’am, verse 29. (6.29): Reference and link here enter image description here

Translation: They insisted, “There is nothing beyond this worldly life and we will never be resurrected.

Sources:

Article by Mufti Wilayah Persekutuan Malaysia. Original version in Malay here. English version in Google Translate here.

Tafsir Maarif-ul-Quran. Interpretation of Surah Al-Jathiyah, verse 25. (45:24). Click here to read.

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The qur'an mentions both atheism الإلحاد and the corresponding verb ألحد, يلحد (however more in the meaning of reject and refute) in several verses. Note that the modern day/use terminology is not necessarily a 100% match for the meaning of both Arabic terms.

Atheism mentioned in the qur'an

Some of the verses mentioning atheism are (with some comments):

  • Life is not but our worldly life - we die and live, but we will not be resurrected. (23:37)

This verse is clearly talking about atheism. People saying so reject everything, Allah, Angels, Messengers, Miracles etc., see also (6:29), (45:24). Their thinking is also displayed in:

And he presents for Us an example and forgets his [own] creation. He says, "Who will give life to bones while they are (36:78)

  • And to Allah belong the best names, so invoke Him by them. And leave [the company of] those who practice deviation concerning His names. They will be recompensed for what they have been doing. (7:180)

These people are rejecting Allah's existence and therefore his names too.

  • They said, "You are not but human beings like us, and the Most Merciful has not revealed a thing. You are only telling lies." (36:15)

  • And they will say, "If only we had been listening or reasoning, we would not be among the companions of the Blaze." (67:10)

These two verse show a kind of people who reject the prophecies, messengers and miracles which also is a reference for atheism. Their behavior and thinking was explained also in:

And if they see a miracle, they turn away and say, "Passing magic." (2)
And they denied and followed their inclinations. But for every matter is a [time of] settlement.
(54:2-3)

  • Indeed, those who inject deviation into Our verses are not concealed from Us. ...
    (41:40)

Is regarded as an example of refusal or rejection of the qur'an and Allah's revelations and therefore as a kind of atheism.

Atheism mentioned in the sunnah

The sunnah also reveals covers the topic of atheism -in the modern day meaning- and some atheistic thoughts here just an example:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Satan comes to one of you and says, 'Who created so-and-so? 'till he says, 'Who has created your Lord?' So, when he inspires such a question, one should seek refuge with Allah and give up such thoughts."
(See for example in Sahih al-Bukhari)

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