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The letter of Prophet Muhammad to the king of Oman.

From Muhammad, the messenger of God, to Jaifar and Abd, sons of Al Julanda. Peace is upon him who follows the guidance. I am calling both of you, in the name of peace. You will be safe if you submit to Islam.

I am the Messenger of God to all people warn all living that Islam will prevail. I hope you will accept Islam, but if you do not, then you will lose your country, and my horsemen will invade your territory and my prophecy will dominate your country.

Seal: Muhammad, the Prophet of God

Why did prophet Muhammad threaten the king of Oman(but if you do not, then you will lose your country, and my horsemen will invade your territory and my prophecy will dominate your country).

There should be no force convertion to Islam. But by threatening that your kingdom will be conquered and you will lose your kingdom if you reject Islam, is force.

And why would prophet say this in first place, I mean why did he threaten the king.

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  • First what is the authenticity of this letter the article doesn't share any source nor qualification. Secondly what is the evidence for your claim that there should be no forceful conversion.
    – Medi1Saif
    Commented Jun 4, 2021 at 19:02
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    @Medi1Saif source(that wiki used) : omanwhs.gov.om/hh/conversiontoislam1.htm, well 2:256 say no compulsion in religion so forcesing someone is compulsion.
    – user45458
    Commented Jun 4, 2021 at 21:25
  • Did Muhammad himself write it? If so, this has to be made up considering he was illiterate. Commented Jun 4, 2021 at 22:00
  • @Epistemophile.Bibliophile There is some evidence that Muhammad (p.b.u.h)did learn to read and write, and he certainly had companions who would have been able to write the letter for him. Still, the question whether the related letter is authentic is legitimate.
    – Jeschu
    Commented Jun 4, 2021 at 22:46
  • It is not necessary to be literate to send a letter. The Prophet had scribes who would write down what he dictated.
    – UmH
    Commented Dec 26, 2022 at 8:15

2 Answers 2

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The letters of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to the various kings are recorded in books of Seerah. Refer to e.g. Raheeq al-Makhtum (English , Arabic).

While the authenticity of some particular report can be discussed, however the content is in agreement with the Quran and Sahih ahadith. As a similitude, when news was brought to Prophet Solomon عليه السلام about sun-worship in kingdom of Sheba (27:22-25), he sent them an invitation to Islam and otherwise threatened war:

إنه من سليمان وإنه بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ألا تعلوا علي وأتوني مسلمين ... فلما جاء سليمان قال ... ارجع إليهم فلنأتينهم بجنود لا قبل لهم بها ولنخرجنهم منها أذلة وهم صاغرون

Indeed, it is from Solomon, and indeed, it is [i.e., reads]: 'In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, Be not haughty with me but come to me in submission [as Muslims].'

...

[Solomon said:] Return to them, for we will surely come to them with soldiers that they will be powerless to encounter, and we will surely expel them therefrom in humiliation, and they will be debased.

Quran 27:30-37

Your claim that there must be no forcing in religion is a misunderstanding and is inconsistent with other texts. You should refer to exegesis of 2:256:

  • It has been abrogated by the later verses on the laws of Jihad, such as 9:29, 9:123 etc.
  • It is specific to the people of the book. When they agree to be under Islamic rule and pay jizyah then they can not be killed and will be permitted to remain on their religion.
  • Was revealed as an invalidation regarding the act of some women who had prior to Islam vowed that they would raise their children as Jews if they survived.

Nowhere does it imply that a disbelieving ruler must be left alone and allowed to rule the land. Such an understanding is inconsistent with other verses of the Quran, and with the acts of the prophets and their successors.

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  • If so, how can islam be a religion of peace.
    – user45458
    Commented Jun 5, 2021 at 8:52
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    See this islam.stackexchange.com/a/68521/45458 2:256 isn't abrogated and this islam.stackexchange.com/a/39857/45458
    – user45458
    Commented Jun 5, 2021 at 8:54
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    what I am trying to say is. The verse is not abrogated according to Ibn kathir.
    – user45458
    Commented Jun 5, 2021 at 9:55
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    Anyway why should we fight those who do not fight us. quran 2:190
    – user45458
    Commented Jun 5, 2021 at 9:56
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    so please explain 2:190. Why not debate, I am having doubt or a misunderstanding so I want to clear it. After all this cite is for understanding and learning about Islam.
    – user45458
    Commented Jun 5, 2021 at 10:24
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understanding of letters sent by the prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, to regional neighbours, inviting to Islam and pitch of war if offer not accepted, in both Islam and Judaism (for example like prophet Solomon and Queen of sahba). We can see similar trend below:

UNDERSTAND: In Islamic period after hijra and the treaty of haudaibiya, after when the Muslim communities came under so much hostility from nations. Especially from pegans, who also sought to kill the prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

Every prophet and his community/companions of believers from prophet Adam Alaihi Salam, through prophet Noah, Alaihi Salam, to Prophet Ibrahim Alaihi Salam, Prophet Musa Alaihi Salam, Prophet Isa-Jesus Alaihi Salam received death plans from the host communities of preaching, and even their own people, especially the idol worshippers or pegans. They refused to allow the prophets and the believers to practice/worship in their land, casting them away, killing them, and chasing them with war.

It is even the same today with countries who don't rever God, -issuing government law against holy practice, I will not mention names.

So our prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him from Quran verses like chapter 9 verse 5,says after the holy months have passed, since they are after you in harmful ways, (the same people mentioned above), it says kill them, lie in wait for them in every place of ambush, take them as prisoners, beleguer them, but if they pray( All believers of God pray, Christians, zoros, Jews, Muslims, etc) pay the retribution tax, then leave their way free (see all below on letters sent with threat of war), Allah is most Forgiving, most mercifuful.

The prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, sent various letters to Kings around Arabia and to some dynasties that have conquered regions and areas near Arabia (for example:Rome-under byzantine-Christian rule of King heraclius). NO THREAT OF WAR. Because they were Christians not pegans attacking believers in monotheism.

The auxumite king of abyssinians-ethiopia (an najjasi) under Christian rule: NO Threat of WAR IN THE Letter because of monotheistic practice.

To muqauqis, cyrus King of alexandra Egypt-under Greek /melchite patriarch of second byzantine period in Egypt. NO THREAT OF War. Because of monotheistic practice.

To alharith,5,, who ruled northwards, the levant, ash-sham in modern day Syria. The ghassanian-byzantine dynasty had already broken of hellenized Arabs. He ruled the byzantine Syria. Early pegan practice started feeding back during this breakage as they mixed Christian and idol beliefs-the Prophet peace and blessings be upon him asked him to be sincere in his belief of the oness of Allah. And if so, his kingship will remain his. WITH Threat OF War Directed due to pegan practice.

To al-mundir-eastern Arabia of bahrayn of sassanian empire, after parthian weakness. They also had pegan beliefs Two letters were sent, the first indicated that the Prophet peace and blessings upon him described that if he did not accept invitation to the oness of Allah, he should know that Islam will stretch and reach the ends of the camels toe. - (THREAT)

The second letter was in reply after the ruler and nobles accepted Islam, but asked what to do about Jewish and zoroastrian worshipers within the bahrayn territory. In which the prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, replied ordering the now deposed ruler to give Muslims freedom to practice their religion, and that he has pardoned lot of offenders, as for the Jews and zoroastrian, they are free to practise their religion under his rule while they fulfil the retribution tax, jizya. So No MORE TALK OF WAR.

To jayfar and ayyad, sons of julandi to the west in Oman - - this is your main interest. The letter was sent through a companion and messenger of the prophet peace be upon him called Amr bin Al-as RadiAllahu anhu. Oman region was also under sassanian beliefs so the letter contained THREAT of WAR.

Ayyad, The easier of the two brothers who said to him:" my brother is the ruler so I shall arrange a meeting with him". When it he read the letter ( i. e, jayfar), He said he has thought about it over and over. If he accepted a single person to take control over his territory, the Arabs would consider him weak. But when he saw the Amr bn al'as preparing to leave with the his declined action to the offer, he embraced Islam with his brother and many country men. This letter is celebrated in iman till this day. In their museum.

STILL NO COMPULSION IN ISLAM!

Only that to defend the community against those who threaten life, religious practice like all the prophets in history were fought/hated/threatened for their beliefs

ALLAH Subhanahu Wa Ta alaa, thus wages war against those who threaten war against the ones who practice monotheism. And thus Islam.

Rulers with armies were not allowed to keep their kingdom, around Arabia, as they always waged war against monotheistic beliefs. If they are captured, see the hadith, they practice their faith. It is only their army and threat to free monotheistic beliefs that you can see is ordered to be cut down near Arabia.

May we always be rightly guided. Cheers!

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