I spent a lot of time on the internet looking for how to pray in the right way the way Muhammad swa prayed. One question that comes to my mind again and again is that we now have a collection of all the hadiths, so why no one is compiling the detailed instructions on prayers from these books of hadith so that we can benefit. so can anybody help me out by providing all the detail explanation of prayer which may be in form of articles or books, whatever you recommend which is authentic would appreciable??
I've came across of sheikh al-albani's book but I've found various instructions missing on that for instance in the tashahud when/where to move your index finger or just erect it while supplicating because here in muslim (sunnah.com/muslim:746a) a hadith split the tashahud in three parts -last one is dua' and we know that prophet swa move his index finger while supplicating! But vast majority of scholars including al-albani said we should move it throughout the tashahud???? And who knows how many things like this are missing!!– MehediJun 1, 2021 at 5:01
First of all, the way Muslims pray in general is based on fiqh perspectives and views based on authentic ahadith. Authentic ahadith here must be clarified a bit more: authentic based on the qualification of the faqih himself.
So whether you pray the way described by hanafi, maliki, shafi'i or hanbali etc. fiqh books with the intention to follow the sunnah of the prophet () your prayer will be fine.
Because all of them tried to follow the sunnah as they witnessed it in their society and heard it via hadith and reports of the sahabah and tabi'yn.
Now you may ask why is there a deviation? Simply speaking because the prophet() didn't stick on one way:
- he taught his sahabah different versions of how to start the prayer: different wordings of the so called du'a al-Istiftah (see for example in Is it proven to say this du'a before niyyah of salah?) and he might also start reading al-Fatihah right after the first takbeer to start the prayer.
- He taught different words for the du'a of ruku', standing after ruku', sujud, sitting between two sajdah and the tashahud (see for example in Is there a sect-neutral tashahhud?)
- He taught or showed or approved or remained silent upon different positions and movements of the hands and fingers etc. during some acts of the prayer.
So scholars of madhhabs have made a choice of the versions that seemed the most correct, accurate and authentic to them. In most if not almost all cases they have chosen authentic ahadith agreed upon ahadith in very few cases they were wrong. (See also Why do people pray salah differently?)
Having that said: You may find what you want in all fiqh books that contain hadith references (I'd assume especially the shafi'i and hanbali school of fiqh might offer more choices here) and one of the most prominent books today is the book of sheikh al-Albani on the prayer of the prophet (). But be aware that none of these sources claims to be complete.
The best way to pray however is to pray intending to follow the sunnah of the prophet () and trying to vary as much as you can of the wordings etc.. As this is a kind of reviving the sunnah of the prophet ().
See also: Why are there so many uncertainties and differences in the performance of Salah?
Actually, there are quite a lot of books that discuss the way of The Prophets prayer ﷺ in a very detailed manner based on authentic Hadiths and sources. Of these books are:
Shama'il Muhammadiyah and
The description of the Prophet’s prayer from Takbeer to Tasleem as if you see it by the Scholar Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani.