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Is a disbeliever critizes islam, quran, Prophet Muhammad will he/she be Punished under sharia law?

For example if he asks why idol worship is prohibited in islam. Idol worship do not harm anyone so why is is prohibited.

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There is a difference between criticism and blasphemy (insults). Mufti Muhammad Shafi wrote in his tafsir:

Honest critical study of Islam by Protected Non-Muslim Citizens of Dar al-Islam is possible - vilification is not

Some commentators have interpreted the words: طَعَنوا في دينِكُم (speak evil of your faith) to mean that speaking evil of the Faith of Muslims is included under contravention of pledge. A person who speaks evil of Islam and the Shari’ah of Islam cannot continue to be a party to the treaty with Muslims. But, according to a consensus of Muslim jurists, it means vilification that is done to insult and belittle Islam and Muslims, openly and publicly. Honest intellectual criticism while conducting research into problems and rulings remains exempt from its purview - then, it is not supposed to be vilification in its lexical sense. Therefore, for non-Muslim citizens of Dar al-Islam, any honest intellectual criticism can be allowed, but what cannot be allowed is vilification, contempt, insult or outrage against Islam.

Ma'ariful Qur'an 19:12

So according to most fuqaha, honest intellectual criticism is allowed but not blasphemy (i.e insults/vilification) which according to most fuqaha is a hadd offense, punishable by death.

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  • Thanks for the answer
    – user43864
    May 21 at 12:53
  • Can you cite some older sources for this.
    – user43864
    May 21 at 12:56