Peace, Blessings, and Divine Love. Doing research in trying to figure out how Muslims observe the "Shabbat/Sabbath", made me ask do Muslims observe a "Sabbath"? I came across this Wikipedia article and then read up on Jumu'ah. I also came across this answer on the Islam StackExchange while doing research as well. Is there a "rest day" in Islam? If so how is it observed and treated/respected? Thank you.
No, Muslims do not observe the Sabbath as it was only prescribed for the Bani Israel.
إنما جعل السبت على الذين اختلفوا فيه
The sabbath was only appointed for those who differed over it.
Jumu'ah (Friday) is our equivalent to the Saturday for the Jews and Sunday for the Christians in the sense that it is a holy day, or a weekly festival. Some of the matters which are prescribed on it are:
- The congregational Friday prayer. This is obligatory and the main observance of the day.
- Taking a bath, using perfume and wearing good clothes.
- Reciting the Quran, Dua and Dhikr.
But it is not required to observe it as a day of rest and there is no prohibition of trade in it. Rather the Quran explicitly permits working on it in other than the time for the prayer:
يا أيها الذين آمنوا إذا نودي للصلاة من يوم الجمعة فاسعوا إلى ذكر الله وذروا البيع ذلكم خير لكم إن كنتم تعلمون فإذا قضيت الصلاة فانتشروا في الأرض وابتغوا من فضل الله واذكروا الله كثيرا لعلكم تفلحون
O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu'ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew.
And when the prayer has been concluded, disperse within the land and seek from the bounty of Allah, and remember Allah often that you may succeed.
However in the present times many Muslim countries do observe a day off on Friday.