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This is the hadith.

Abdullah said that five signs have (become things) of the past (and have proved the truth of the Holy Prophet):

(Enveloping) by the smoke, inevitable (punishment to the Meccans at Badr), (the victory of) Rome, (violent) seizing (of the Meccans at Badr) and (the splitting up of) the Moon.

Now, Abdullah (the narrator) is saying that these have become things of the past, which implies that Rome has already been conquered, but Rome was never conquered by the Muslims. Attempts were made, but the Muslims never succeeded. So, according to the hadith, will the conquest of Rome by Muslims take place in the future?

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The Arabic in that hadith literally just says "…والروم…" ("…and Rome…") It doesn't say, or even imply, anything about conquering, much less being conquered by Muslims.

The sign that it's likely referring to is found in the Quran:

[1] Alif, Lam, Meem.
[2] The Byzantines (Rome) have been defeated
[3] In the nearest land. But they, after their defeat, will overcome.
[4] Within three to nine years. To Allah belongs the command before and after. And that day the believers will rejoice
[5] In the victory of Allah . He gives victory to whom He wills, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful.
[6] [It is] the promise of Allah . Allah does not fail in His promise, but most of the people do not know.
Ar-Rum 1-6

This prophesises that the Byzantines (i.e. the Romans) — who had recently been defeated by the Persians — will be victorious again in the coming years. That situation had already come to pass by the time Abdullah's report was collected.

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