What does islam say about protests and demonstrations? Is it permissible or not? If it is then why? Please give some strong authentic evidences according to quran and sunnah? Jajakallahun khairon!
I can not give you the answer you asked for; there is no answer on this topic in the Quran and there won't probably be an answer in the Hadith; this for the following reason:
Protest and demonstration are usually the means of people against a deplorable state of affairs that can not be handled through jurisdiction.
Justice in the Qur'an and in the practice we know from the Hadith is based on
- jurisdiction on earth
- the judgement of God.
In the later time of Muhammad ﷺ , as he himself was the highest instance of judgement in the state, there was no need to provide measures in case the jurisdiction on earth fails, or to encourage people to protest against bad governance.
In earlier times, Muhammad ﷺ chose the way to flee from Mecca when opression became too hard. Later, the Prophet ﷺ and the people around him resisted the enemy with arms.
Fortunately, not every righteous cause has to be faught for in this way. If protests and demonstrations are another form of fighting for what pleases God, it is jihad, and the words thereon may apply:
Those who responded to God and the Messenger, despite the persecution they had suffered. For the virtuous and the pious among them is a great reward. Those to whom the people have said, “The people have mobilized against you, so fear them.” But this only increased them in faith, and they said, “God is enough for us; He is the Excellent Protector.”
Not all protest has a case of the importance that it may be counted as jihad.
The fatwa here is a view commonly shared also by Islam scolars (also outside the salafist movement).